Upgrade to remove ads
Level 32: Changes in China (Grammar)
Terms in this set (22)
HISTORY: Explain who Mao Zedong is, and his significance. (**BONUS: in Chinese)
Mao Zedong was a Chinese communist revolutionary and founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as an autocrat from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
HISTORY: Explain who Deng Xiaoping is, and his significance. (**BONUS: in Chinese)
Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese revolutionary and statesman. Sacked by Mao during the Cultural Revolution, Deng returned to power to become the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1989. Deng spearheaded the far-reaching Chinese economic reforms known as Reform and Opening Up.
HISTORY: Explain who Chiang Kai-Shek is, and his significance. (**BONUS: in Chinese)
Chiang Kai-shek was a Chinese political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975. The leader of the Kuomintang, the Chinese Nationalist Party, Chiang Kai-shek fought Mao Zedong for the control of China in the Chinese Civil War. After his defeat he retreated to Taiwan and ruled there as President of the Republic of China until his death in 1975.
HISTORY: Explain who Xi Jinping is, and his significance. (**BONUS: in Chinese)
习近平是中国政府里最重要的人，从2013年起为中华人民共和国(zhōng huá rén mín gòng hé guó=PRC)第五代最高领导(líng dǎo=leader)人，中华人民共和国主席(zhǔ xí=chairman)。
Xi Jinping is the current President of the People's Republic of China. Since assuming power in 2013, Xi has introduced far-ranging measures to enforce party discipline and to ensure internal unity. His signature anti-corruption campaign has led to the downfall of prominent incumbent and retired Communist Party officials, including members of the Politburo Standing Committee. Considered the central figure of the fifth generation of leadership of the People's Republic, in 2018, Forbes ranked Xi as the most powerful and influential person in the world.
HISTORY: [IN CHINESE] Name at least three major events in the history of China in the 20th century, INCLUDING their dates. Briefly explain the significance of these events.
1912：中国最后的朝代(cháo dài=dynasty)，清朝(qīng cháo=Qing Dynasty)，结束了
1949: 中华人民共和国 ("新中国") 成立 [chéng lì=to establish]
1978：邓小平上台(shàng tái=take power)，改革开放开始
HISTORY: Put the following events in Modern Chinese History in order from earlier to later.
(**BONUS: add dates)
"新中国"建立(jiàn lì=to establish)
1937-1945：抗日战争 / 第二次世界大战
1949: 中华人民共和国 ("新中国") 成立 [chéng lì=to establish]
RULE (in English): compare and contrast the structures "从来", "从来不", and "从来没". Give examples of each.
从来 (cóng lái) [adv] from past till present; always; at all times
NOTE: 从来 can work in the positive, but it is more often followed by a word of negation like 不 or 没. This is used to express that you NEVER DO something (as a habit, or as a rule), or that you HAVE NEVER DONE something (it's not a part of your life experience).
In either usage, 从来 (cónglái) may be shortened to just 从 (cóng) in casual speech.
从来＋(都) ＝ ALWAYS (from the beginning)...
从来＋不 ＝ NEVER (from the beginning)...
从来＋没(有) = NEVER HAD (from the beginning)...
MAKE A SENTENCE: 从来不
When you follow 从来 with 不, you are expressing that you NEVER DO something as a HABIT, or as a RULE. It's often used as a way to refuse something, as in "I never drink."
Structure: "Sub＋从来＋不＋[Verb Phrase]"
NOTE: Because a "从来不" sentence refers to ongoing habits, there is NO aspect particle (i.e. 了，过，or 着).
1. 她从来不喝酒。＝ She never drinks.
2. 我女朋友从不给我打电话。＝My girlfriend never gives me a call. [来 has been omitted here]
3. 这个人很奇怪，他从来不笑。= This person is very strange. He never laughs.
TRANSLATE: She never drinks [as a habit/rule]
MAKE A SENTENCE: 从来没
When you follow 从来 with 没(有), you are expressing that you HAVE NEVER DONE something (it's not a part of your life experience). You're talking about the past now, because you're talking about what you haven't done before, so 没有 (i.e. the past negation structure) is appropriate.
Structure: "Sub＋从来 ＋没(有)＋Verb＋过＋Object"
NOTE 1: Because you're making a statement about your life experience, you should always use the aspect particle 过 (and NOT 了).
1. 你从来没有想过这个问题吗？= Have you never thought about this question?
2. 她从来没见过她妈妈。= She has never met her mother.
3. 你们从来没有听说过这个地方吗？= Have you never heard about this place before?
TRANSLATE: I've never heard of this [ever before].
MAKE A SENTENCE: 以...为...
(yǐ + A + wéi + B) "Treating A as B"
This pattern is often found in formal writing and speech, and it is also one of the classical Chinese forms that is still in use today.
In short, it means "Treating A as B" or "using A as B." We might say "take his example as our standard", "use this piece as an example", or "take charity as our central tenet."
This grammar structure is often used with couplets and proverbs.
1. "民以食为天" = people treating food as heaven
2. 这位老师以校为家 = This teacher treats his school as his home
3. 我姐姐以帮助别人 = My older sister ?????
TRANSLATE: "people treating food as heaven"
MAKE A SENTENCE: 尽可能
(jín kě néng) [adv] as much as possible; to one's utmost
2. A: 能成功的保留中国特色传统吗？B: 我们尽可能保留。
TRANSLATE: It looks like, Nanjing people really want as much as possible to preserve old Nanjing's [special] characteristics.
MAKE A SENTENCE: 不管
(bù guǎn) [adv] no matter; regardless of
"不管 + Situation + Subject + (都/也)+ Result"
NOTE: 不管 is more informal than 无论, but it is used in more or less the same way. As with other constructions, 都 and 也 can be used in the second part of the sentence to emphasize that the action or decision will not change
TRANSLATE: Regardless of how China changes, Nanjing changes, having to eat when hungry won't change
TRANSLATE: "It doesn't matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice"
(bù guǎn hēi māo bái māo, zhuō dào lǎo shǔ jiù shì hǎo māo) [phrase]
> 不管＝regardless of，猫＝cat，捉＝catch，老鼠＝mouse
NOTE: this is a famous quote by Deng Xiaoping. It is an expression of the pragmatic approach that guided Deng in crafting the Reform and Opening Up program of economic reforms. In other words, Deng did not worry too much about whether a person was a revolutionary or not, as long as she was competent and contributed positively to the economy. This statement came to stand in opposition to the ideas of class struggle projected into economic relations.
MAKE A SENTENCE: 要不是
(yào bú shì) [conjunction] if it were not for; but for
"要不是 + Condition, Result"
NOTE: This is a spoken Chinese phrase. It's the opposite of the structure "要是," and used in the exact opposite situation.
TRANSLATE: When in Shanghai, if it were not for Chinese everywhere, I would still mistakenly believe I was in America.
**BONUS (RULE): in English, explain the "一 + Reduplicated MW" structure. Describe the grammar pattern and give examples in context.
Remember (from Level 31) that a measure word can be reduplicated to mean "without exception, all inclusive."
For example, "过年了，孩子们个个都非常高兴" = It's Chinese New Year, and every child is very happy.
However, if you add "一" in front of a reduplicated measure word, the new structure describes a large grouping of identical or similar, yet distinctly individual objects.
This structure is similar in meaning to 很多, but different because 很多 only describes quantity, while the reduplicated measure word suggests "a large grouping" or "a large collection."
1. 桌子上摆着一盘盘水果，一瓶瓶可乐。＝ On the desk is placed plates and plates of fruit, bottles and bottles of soda.
(TRANSLATE): Nanjing on the one hand has structure upon structure of skyscrapers [*Reduplicated MW*], and on the other hand there are rows upon rows of traditional buildings [
E): Nanjing on the one hand has structure upon structure of skyscrapers [*Reduplicated MW*], and on the other hand there are rows upon rows of traditional buildings [*Reduplicated MW*].
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Sentence patterns from Mr. Haskett
Rhetorical Terms Test
lit terms combined - midterm
SAT Essay Glossary (from Kahn Academy)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Grammar Review: Complements
Grammar Review (Sentence Structure)
Level 30: Chinese Geography (map locatio…
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
MATH 323 Exam 2 Statements and Definitions
Chemistry 1010 module 5 quiz
4339: Tax Consequences of Property Disposal (Ch 11)