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Level 35: Gender Equality (Grammar)

Terms in this set (14)

A lot of direction complements, particularly compound direction complements, have additional idiomatic meanings beyond literally describing the physical direction of an action.

These are the so-called "ABSTRACT DIRECTION COMPLEMENTS." They are often used figuratively to express result.

These do not actually deal with direction in a literal sense, but rather suggest a result or a state of being.

Examples include 起来,出来,下去,and 过来.

1. 过来 = signifies the return to the normal active state of an action:

> 这几天他睡得太吵了,昨天睡得不错,都九点了,还没醒(xǐng=wake)过来呢。= He has been sleeping too little the past few days. Last night he slept pretty well; it's already nine o'clock, and he still hasn't woken up.
> 老师给他讲了好几次,他才明白过来。= The teacher explained several times; only then did he get it.

2. 出来 = signifies the emergence of something from a hidden place into the open; or a change from having nothing to having something.

> 把你的问题说出来 = Tell us your problem ["to get it out in the open"]
> 每年开学的时候,家里还是得拿出很多钱来。= My family still has to come up with ["to bring out into the open"] a lot of money.
> 我看出来他很生气了。= I could tell that he got angry.

3. 起来 = signifying an action that starts to take place; or expressing a preliminary judgement.

> 看起来你真是玩儿上瘾了。It looks like you're really addicted to playing [on your computer].
> 听起来[好像]你不爱跟我聊天儿。It sounds like [it seems] you don't like chatting with me.
> 大家都笑了起来 = everyone began to laugh

4. 下来 = implying detachment or separation of one thing from another.

> ex. 孩子生下来 = the child is born

For more details about direction complements; see this link: