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Chapter 3 -- Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues
Terms in this set (85)
explain compartmentation at the cellular level
at the cellular level, compartmentation describes how a cell is separated from its outside environment. its components are the "compartment" made by the cellular membrane. inside the cell organelles can also be seen
describe the structure of the plasmalemma
the plasmalemma is made of a lipid bilayer with the hydrophilic heads on the outer edges of the membrane and the hydrophobic tails inside the space created by the two layers of the polar heads
how many times must a cell membrane be crossed in order to cross an epithelial membrane
list the four general functions of the cell membrane
(1) physical isolation: separating intracellular fluid from the surrounding extracellular fluid
(2) regulation of exchange w/environment: controls entry of ions and nutrients into cells as well as waste out of the cell
(3) communications between the cell and environment: proteins allow cells to recognize and respond to molecular changes in the environment
(4) structural support: proteins in the CM hold the cytoskeleton to maintain the cell's shape
give an example of a membrane which is primarily protein and is extremely metabolically active
the inner mitochondrial membrane is 3/4 protein
describe the fluid mosaic model
the fluid mosaic model consists of the phospholipid bilayer which has a host of different mlc that impact how it behaves. Some examples include cholesterol which provides control of membrane flexibility at varying temperatures, proteins which allow for metabolic activity and transport depending on their structure and placement in the membrane
what is the role of micelles?
micelles are small droplets with a single layer of phospholipids and are important in digestion and absorption of fats in the digestive tract
what role does cholesterol play in permeability of a cell membrane
cholesterol mlcs help make membranes impermeable to small-water mlc and keep membranes flexible over a wide-range of temperatures
describe the arrangement, mobility, and distribution of associated proteins, integral proteins, and membrane-spanning proteins
associated proteins are attached to other membrane proteins and are highly mobile
integral proteins: are tightly bound to the membrane, low mobility,
membrane-spanning proteins: are a type of intergral protein and are tightly bound to the membrane and tightly held in place
approximately how many different types of cells are found in the human body?
what is the glycolyx? what is its main role?
the glycolyx is a protective layer formed by glycoproteins, glycolypids, and membrane sugars which can help determine the body's immune response
what is differentiation?
specialization of cell function depending on selected gene activation
what is the distinction between the "cytoplasm" and "cytosol"
the cytoplasm includes all material inside the cell membrane except for the nucleus and the cytosol is a component of the cytoplasm, intracellular fluid
describe the consistency of the cytosol?
what are the most common "inclusions"
liquid droplets, glycogen granules, ribosomes
name the five membranous organelles outlined in your text
mitochondria, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, lysosomes
what is the structure and function of a ribosome?
ribosomes are small dense granules of RNA and protein that manufacture proteins under the direction of the cells DNA
name the three types of protein fibers in the cytoplasm. give examples of each.
(1) microfilaments -- actin (globular, associates with myosin for muscle contraction
(2) intermediate filaments: keratin, in hair and nails
(3) microtubules: tubulin, movement of cilia, flagella, and chromosomes
what is the name of the cell's "microtubule organizing center"?
how many centrioles are in the centrosome, "the microtuble organizing center"? what is the structure of the centriole?
there are 2 centrioles; each of which is a cylindrical bundle of 27 microtubules arranged in 9 triplets
microtubles are part of the structure of the cilia and flagella. describe the difference between cilia and flagella in terms of density and prevalence in the human body
individual cilia are present on most cells, but cells in upper airways (e.g. throat) and female reproductive tract are lined with cilia whereas flagella are only seen on the male sperm
briefly list five functions of the cytoskeleton
cell shape, internal organization, intracellular transport, assembly of cells into tissues, movement
be familiar with the following concepts related to mitochondria: function, cristae, matrix, intermembrane space,
function: ATP production, creation of energy for the cell
cristae: increase the surface area of the inner membrane, allowing for faster production of ATP
intermembrane space: lies between outer and inner mitochondrial membranes and plays an important role in mitochondrial ATP production
prokaryotic endosymbiont theory
mitochondria are descendents of bacteria that invaded cells millions of years ago and developed a mutually beneficial relationship with their hosts and soon became an integral part of the host cells
explain mitochondrial replication
can replicate through budding without host cell replication
what is the main site of fatty acid, steroid, and lipid synthesis?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
what is the main site of protein synthesis?
rough endoplasmic reticulum?
what is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
a specialized type of smooth ER that regulates the calcium ion concentration in the cytoplasm of striated muscle cells
what is the main function of the Golgi Appartus?
modification and packaging of proteins made on the rough ER
describe the major function of the lysosomes
storage vesicles that act as the digestive system of the cell
why are the contents of lysozymes not effective just after leaving the Golgi apparatus?
they activate only at acidic pH (within lysozymes) but the pH just after leaving the Golgi Apparatus is 7.0-7.3
name one disease state in which inappropriate release of lysozymes causes inflammation and destruction of joint tissue?
name the function of peroxisomes.
the function of peroxisomes is to degrade long chain fatty acids and potentially foreign mlc, named due to reactions which generate hydrogen peroxide, get rid of hydrogen peroxide, by converting to oxygen and water using catalse
where do peroxisomes get their name?
they are named after the reactions they conduct which generate hydrogen peroxide
how do peroxisomes get rid of their toxic byproducts
they get rid of hydrogen peroxide by converting them to oxygen and water using catalase
what are nucleur pore complexes?
large protein complexes with a central channel which controls communication between the nuclus and cytosol
the study of tissue structure and function
name the four physical features that help histologists describe tissues
(1) shape and size of the cells
(2) the arrangement of cells in the tissue
(3) the way cells are connected to one another
(4) the amount of extracellular material present in the tissue
name the four primary tissue types
epithelial, connective, muscle, neural
describe the extracellular matrix of nerve and muscle tissue
nerve and muscle tissue have very little extracellular matrix
briefly describe the extracellular matrix of connective tissues?
extensive matrix that occupies as much volume as their cells
what are CAMs?
membrane-spanning proteins responsible for normal growth and development?
name the three types of cell junctions
communicating junctions, occluding junctions, anchoring junctions
gap junctions are characterized by ___________ which resemble hollow rivets with narrow channels through their centers
name the two forms of cell-cell anchoring junctions found in vertebrates. which of the two forms is considered a stronger junction?
adherens junctions and desmosmes. desmosomes are the stronger junction
name two of the major functions of epithelia
protect the internal environment of the body and regulate the exchange of materials between the internal and external environments
define the basal lamina (basement membrane).
the matrix layer lying between the epithelial cells and their underlying tissue
give one example of "leaky" and one example of "tight" epithelia
leaky: wall of capillaries
name the two general types of epithelia
(1) sheets of tissue that lie on the surface of the body or that line the insides of tubes and hollow organs
(2) secretory epithelia that synthesize and release substances into the extracellular space
be familiar with classification of sheet epithelia by histologists
simple layering -- one cell thick and stratifies ???
three cell shapes: squamous, cuboidal, columnar
where is ciliated epithelia found
primarily in the airways of the respiratory system and female reproductive tract
name the five functional types of epithelia
exchange, transporting, ciliated, secretory, protective
give an example of exchange epithelia and how the structure of the tissue matches its function
lines the blood vessels and the lungs and the thin flattened cells allow CO2 and O2 to pass easily
give another name for the simple squamous epithelium found in the lining of the heart and blood vessels
give a brief description of transporting epithelia. give an example
regulate the exchange of nongaseous materials, are found in the digestive system
protective epithelia is stratified and designed to prevent exchange between the internal and external environments. give example of where it is found
skin (epidermis), linings of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, urethra, vagina
describe the lifespan of protective epithelia and address the effect of Retin-A on this type of tissue
short life span due to irritation and destrcutive fources. Retin-A speeds up cell division and surface shedding so that skin develops a more youthful experience
describes the cells of secretory epithelia
cells that produce a substance and then secrete it into the extracellular space
differentiate between exocrine glands and endocrine glands
exocrine glands (ducted) release their secretion to the body's external environment whereas endocrine glands (ductless) secret to the body's extracellular comparment (the internal environment)
name three examples of exocrine glands
sweat glands, mammary glands, salivary glands
name the two types of exocrine secretions
serous secretions and mucous secretions
what are goblet cells
single exocrine cells that produce mucus
what are endocrine secretions?
do they always come from glands?
name some of the best known endocrine glands
pancreas, thyroid, gonads, pituitary
what is the distinguishing characteristic of connective tissue?
presence of extensive extracellular matrix containing widely scattered cells that secrete and modify the matrix
what is ground substance?
extracellular matrix of connective tissue of proteoglycans and water in which insoluble protien fibers are arranged
explain the difference in the primary functions of fixed and mobile connective tissues
fixed are responsible for local maintenance, tissue repair, and energy storage
mobile tissues are responsible for defense
collagen, elastin, fibrillin, and fibronectin are all found in connective tissue matrix as insoluble protein fibers. which are most prevalent? what are their contributions to the matrix?
collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, arrangement helps determine mechanical properites.
- elastin combines with fibrillin to form filaments and elastic fibers in the lungs, blood vessels, and skin.
-fibronectin connects to cells to extracellular matrix at focal adhesions and plays an important role in wound healing and blood clotting
elastic tissues that underlie skin and provide support for small glands are known as _______
loose connective tissue
name two examples of dense connective tissue
tendons, ligaments, myelin sheaths around nerves
why is damage to cartilage in the knee so slow to heal?
nutrients and oxygen must reach the cells of cartilage by diffusion (no blood vessels)
what accounts for "hardness" and "rigidity" of bone?
it is calcified, has a high concentration of calcium salts
explain the difference between a brown adipocyte and a white adipocyte in terms of occurrence and function
brown fat occurs in infants and plays important role in temperature regulation wheras white fat is the most common form of adipose tissue in adults
why is it less intuitive that blood is considered a connective tissue?
it appears liquid due to its watery extracellular matrix
name the "excitable" tissues
muscle and neural
name the three types of muscle tissue in the body
cardiac, smooth, skeletal
what is the primary function of glial cells
support cells for neurons
describe necrosis in terms of possible causes and the actual process
necrosis can occur when cells die from physical trauma, toxins, or lack of oxygen when their blood supply is cut off.
necrotic cells swell, their organelles deteriorate and finally the cells rupture
unlike necrosis, how does apoptosis reduce or eliminate damage to neighboring cells
they do not disrupt neighbors, chromatin condenses, shrinking the cells, and then breaks up into membrane-bound blebs which are the consumed by other cells or the immune system; "programmed cell death"
what role does apoptosis play during early development of the embryo and fetus?
it removes unneeded cells in the developing brain and the webs of skin between fingers and toes
give one example of tissues in which the cells are completely replaced every few days
define stem cell. how does development from a stem cell differ from new cells created by mitosis? which of these processes occur in nerve and skeletal muscle cells and to what degree?
a stem cell is an undiffereniated cell. Development from a stem cell comes from differentiation whereas mitosis regenerates the same type of cell. stem cells for nerve and skeletal muscle cells do exist but are few in number naturally in the body
name four structures found in skin (heavies single organ) which demonstrate that this organ is a combination of the four types of tissue
epithelial tissue lines the outside of the body (epidermis); muscle tissue is attached to skin (esp in facial muscles); neural tissue is found in nerve endings just below skin surface; connective tissue (adipose tissue is found in the subcutaneous fat in skin)
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