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Knowledge based- KNOWLEDGE concepts
Terms in this set (37)
Knowledge based economy
A key concept of the knowledge economy is that knowledge and education (often referred to as "human capital") can be treated as one of the following two:
• A business product, as educational and innovative intellectual products and services can be exported for a high value return.
• A productive asset.
the unstructured facts and figures. Facts and figures which relay something specific, but which are not organized in any way and which provide no further information regarding patterns, context.
For data to become information, it must be contextualized, categorized, calculated and condensed. Essentially information is found "in answers to questions that begin with such words as who, what, where, when, and how many" (Ackoff 1999)
- IT is usually invaluable in the capacity of turning data into information.
-The human brain is mainly needed to assist in contextualization.
Knowledge is closely linked to doing and implies know-how and understanding.
is the ability, developed through experience, insight and reflection, to discern truth and exercise good judgment.
relies primarily on short- term memorization— cramming facts, data, concepts and information to pass quizzes and exams...(90% student learning is surface learning in US)
is when you have information plus some understanding, meaning and sense making
You have to develop understanding and meaning -> integrate it and be able to shift your frame of reference as the context and situation shift
8. Explicit knowledge (Declarative knowledge)
This type of knowledge is formalized and codified and sometimes referred to KNOW-WHAT.
• Can be articulated and codified
• Disseminated in the form of documents, drawings, best practices, stories (story telling) etc.
• Learning through structured, managed, scientific process
It is information or knowledge that is set out in tangible form.
9. Implicit knowledge (Potential Knowledge)
information or knowledge that is not set out in tangible form but could be made explicit. Implicit Knowledge is very much about "knowing how" to do something. A good example of Implicit Knowledge in an organization could be found in asking a worker how a task is to be performed and to ask what the range of outcomes might be for the task or even portions of the task. Embedded knowledge refers to the knowledge that is locked in processes, products, culture, routines, artifacts, or structures
The concept of tacit knowledge refers to a knowledge which is only known to you and hard to share with someone else, which is the opposite from the concept of explicit knowledge.
• Difficult to extract from people
• Transferring knowledge = transferring people
• Learning encouraged by bringing the right
people together under the right circumstances
• Apprenticeship <-> master
Information or knowledge that one would have extreme difficulty operationally setting out in tangible form
The above discussion brings home the fact that
the mind/brain develops robustness and deep understanding derived from its capacity
to use past learning and memories to complete incoming information instead of
storing all the details.
Wisdom as referring to two distinct phenomena: The first was the content of wisdom (information and/or knowledge) and the second an individual's capacity
to think or act wisely.
... [wisdom] therefore is developed through the process of aging ... wisdom seems to consist of the ability to move away from absolute truths, to be reflective to make sound judgments related to our daily existence, whatever our circumstances.(Merriam & Caffarella, 1999, p. 165).
Knowledge reuse is the process through which knowledge is captured, validated, stored, and retrieved. Through the reuse of knowledge, organizations may exploit internal capabilities and improve the effectiveness of their exploration activities.
Huy động tri thức - is the process of generating value or a value stream through the creation, assimilation, leveraging, sharing and
application of focused knowledge to a bounded community.
information becomes a distraction, a diversion, a form of entertainment, rather than a tool of empowerment, rather than the means of emancipation.
World-class 'information intensive' infrastructures can actually amplify, accelerate or induce devastating
professional misjudgments Fund managers "knew" that there were speculative bubbles in the internet, telecom and biotech sectors.
They invested anyway.
Information is vastly over-rated as an asset.
• REMEMBER: Having the 'right' information at the 'right' time may not lead to the 'right' decision.
• A CEO, forward air controller or battlefield commander may receive anywhere from 10 to 1000 times more information per unit time to make decisions.
• More Information = More Analysis
• The value of information comes from the quality of analysis (=knowledge!).
•More Information = More Accountability
•Verification increasingly substitutes for trust
Thông tin bất đối xứng -tức là có người biết được nhiều thông tin hơn người khác, và chuộc lợi được từ việc biết các thông tin đó. Những nhà đầu tư bị biết ít thông tin hơn, đặc biệt là các nhà đầu tư nhỏ, hay bị thiệt thòi.
Principles of knowing
(1) Making decisions in an increasingly complex environment requires new ways of thinking.
(2) All the information in the world is useless if the decision-maker who needs it cannot process
it and connect it to their own internal values, knowledge, and wisdom.
(3) We don't know all that we know.
(4) Each of us has knowledge far beyond that which is in our conscious mind. Put another way,
we know more than we know we know. (Much of our experience and knowledge resides in the
(5) By exercising our mental and sensory capabilities we can increase those capabilities.
(6) Support capabilities of organizational knowing include organizational learning,
knowledge centricity, common values and language, coherent vision, whole-brain learning
The cognitive capabilities
deciphering and understanding
) - Noticing- Sensing- Patterning-
The cognitive process
Visualizing- Intuiting- Valuing- Choosing- Setting Intent
Economy of Attention
Information and its flow can be accurately detected and counted (in bits, bytes, and baud rates) by simple electronic devices. (Thông tin và dòng chảy được tìm ra và có giá trị bởi các thiết bị electronic đơn giản)
2. Attention is more mysterious, a process that can occur only in a mind
3. Attention can ground an economy because it is a fundamental human desire and is intrinsically (về bản chất), unavoidably scarce (khan hiếm khó có thể tránh).
4. If you run an attention deficit (thâm hụt) too often or too long, there will eventually be serious psychological and organizational consequences
5. Before you can manage attention, you need to understand just how depleted (suy yếu, suy kiệt) these resources are for organizations and individuals
6. As with any other scarce and valuable resource, markets for attention exist both within and outside an organization. As with other markets, some people do a lot better than others in the attention markets.
Kinh tế sức chú ý là một cách tiếp cận quản lý thông tin coi sức chú ý của con người như một mặt hàng khan hiếm, áp dụng các lý thuyết kinh tế học để giải quyết các vấn đề trong quá trình quản lý thông tin. VD: Một cốc cafe mang nhãn hiệu A mặc dù có cùng hàm lượng cafein, cùng độ thơm ngon, với một cốc cafe B nhưng chưa chắc có giá trị bằng bởi sự quan tâm của con người đến hai cốc cafe này là khác nhau và thật khó có thể chuyển đổi được cho nhau.
Ngày nay kinh tế học sức chú ý chủ yếu quan tâm đến những vấn đề xuất phát từ khách hàng để ứng dụng vào quảng cáo.
I Know what I know
I Know what I don't know
I don't know what I know
I don't know what I don't know
Descriptive and Prescriptive knowledge
Explicit (Descriptive - Prescriptive)
Tacit(Talents, comptency, skill)
=> Procedural knowledge - Ability to act = Prescriptive+ Tacit
1. is a visual representation of knowledge
2. Originated from the belief that people act on things that they understand and accept.
3. Indicates that self-determined change is sustainable.
4. Can represent explicit/tacit, formal/informal, documented/undocumented, internal/external knowledge.
• It is not a knowledge repository (chỗ chứa). It may identify strengths to exploit and missing knowledge gaps to fill.
• Knowledge Mapping is very useful when it is required to visualize and explores complex systems.
• Examples of complex systems are ecosystems, the internet, telecommunications systems, and customer-supplier chains in the stock market.
• Knowledge Mapping is a multi-step process.
• Key can be extracted (trích ra) from database or literature and placed in tabular (xếp thành cột) form as lists of facts.
• These tabled relationships can then be connected in networks to form the required knowledge maps
Example: Knowledge MapA popular knowledge map used in human resources is a skills planner in which employees are matched to jobs
(Nonaka & Takeuchi) Knowledge is either explicit or tacit, and either individual or collective.
• Socialisation (from tacit to tacit, whereby an individual acquires tacit knowledge directly from others through shared experience, observation, imitation and so on);
• Externalisation (from tacit to explicit, through articulation of tacit knowledge into explicit concepts);
• Combination (from explicit to explicit, through a systematisation of concepts drawing on different bodies of
• Internalisation (from explicit to tacit, through a process of "learning by doing" and through a verbalisation and
documentation of experiences).
Models of Knowledge Conversion
Conversion from tacit to tacit knowledge produces socialization where knowledge developer looks for experience in case of knowledge capture.
• Conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge involves externalizing, explaining or clarifying tacit knowledge via
analogies, models, or metaphors.
• Conversion from explicit to tacit knowledge involves internalizing (or fitting explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge.
• Conversion from explicit to explicit knowledge involves combining, categorizing, reorganizing or sorting different bodies of explicit knowledge to lead to new knowledge.
knowledge about "facts"; experts must have a lot of this kind of knowledge in order to fulfill their jobs
Scientific knowledge of the principles and laws of nature. The production and reproduction of know-why is often organized in specialized organisations, such as research laboratories and universities
context, business planning, strategy, reasons to learn (Hoàn cảnh, kế hoạch công ty, chiến lược, lý do học hỏi)
Skills or the capability to do something. Businessmen judging market prospects for a new product or a personnel manager selecting and training staff have to use their know-how
Know-how is typically a kind of knowledge developed and kept within the border of an individual firm
Know-who involves information about who knows what and who knows how to do what; the formation of special social relationships which make it possible to get access to experts and use their knowledge efficiently
where-to, where-from, strategic positioning, planning, reflecting ( Ở đâu, Từ đâu, Lập kế hoạch, phản suy nghĩ...)
timing, pacing, planning, scheduling, context, just-in-time (thời gian, nhịp độ, thời gian biếu, hoàn cảnh...)
scenarios, scenario development, foresight, contingency, just-in-case (kịch bản, phát triển kịch bản, sự lo xa, sự ngẫu nhiên, nếu như mà)
Seven principles about KM
- Everything is fragmented (mảnh vỡ)
- Tolerated failure imprints (ảnh hưởng sâu sắc) learning better than success.
- Knowledge can only be volunteered
- We only know what we know when we need to know it.
- In the context of real need few people will withhold (giấu) their knowledge
- The way we know things is not the way we report we know things
- We always know more than we can say, and we will always say more than we can write down
Knowledge is really a core competency
• Provide a clear benefit for the customer.
• Be demonstrably (rõ ràng minh bạch) better than its competitors.
• Offer potential for new products and services in the future.
• Be difficult to imitate (reverse engineering).
• Be firmly embedded in the company (nhúng vững chắc)
Knowledge management is an integrated, systematic approach to identifying,
managing, and sharing all of an enterprise's information assets, including databases, documents, policies, and procedures, as well as previously unarticulated expertise and experience held by individual workers.
3 basic KM processes
• Knowledge production (Including Innovation)
• Knowledge dissemination (Knowledge transfer, knowledge sharing)
• Knowledge utilization (For new products and services, decision making etc.)
≠ • Knowledge Discovery & Detection
• Knowledge Organization & Assessment
• Knowledge Sharing
• Knowledge Reuse
• Knowledge Creation
• Knowledge Acquisition
(STORING - REUSING - CONNECTING - GENERATING)
To manage their knowledge, organization:
• Communities of Practice
• After Action Reviews
• Learning Histories
• Knowledge Fairs
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Knowledge based economy - KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge based - Creativity concepts
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