History of Modern Psychology - Chapter 2
Terms in this set (45)
Rationalist, Nativist, explained idea of mind/body interaction and reflexes.
The earth is at the center of the universe.
The sun is at the center and the earth moves around it just like other planets.
Scientists must observe nature systematically as it presents itself, rather than follow the conclusions derived from a deductive analysis of Aristotle and other authorities.
Combining the received wisdom of church authority with careful use of reason.
Truth comes from logic and reasoning.
We have beliefs from birth that include ideas of god, self, and some basic math.
Our concepts result from our experiences
believe in innate ideas
Clear separation between mind and body.
Divides humans and animals. Animals are simple machines incapable of reason and language and lack a mind. Humans have a mechanical body with a mind that can reason, we are special.
The body operates like a complicated machine.
the mind could have a direct influence on the body (decision to improve our health causes us to exercise) and the body could have a direct influence on the mind (a pulled hamstring causes us to redesign our exercise plan).
An automatic stimulus response reaction
a notion that traces to the ancient greeks were said to be derived from the heat of the blood and were the driving forces behind the movement. Descartes believed these were tiny particles in constant motion and were found in the brain, nerves and muscles.
interaction occurred here in the brain, it was believed to be strategically located in a place where the flow of the anmal spirits could be controlled.
When knowledge is woven together by experiences and ideas.
Based on the idea that our knowledge of the world is constructed from our experiences in it.
John Locke's best known political work, Two Treatises on Government he described this between government and the people.
Locke was determined to study human knowledge and its acquisition
Locke renamed an old Aristotelian metaphor of the mind as a blank slate or wax tablet
results from experiencing basic sensory qualities such as color, temperature
includes several combinations of ideas. a cold drink on a hot day.
Idea that complexity in nature can be understood by reducing objects to their most basic elements.
extension, shape, motion, descartes believe these to be innate, locke says there's nothing innate about it and they come from sensory experiences.
These depend on perception; color, smell, warmth, taste.
the only reality is a physical reality and that every event in the universe including what we think of as mental events, involved measurable material objects in motion in physical space.
Belief that all events have prior causes. if we are not free to choose, then we cannot be held responsible for our actions.
When objects move closer to us or farther away we alter the disposition of ours by lessening or widening the interval between the pupils (Berkeley)
Changes in the shape of the lens serve to keep objects focused on the retina. closer objects produce greater bulging of the lens than objects farther away. (berkeley)
We cannot be certain of the reality of material objects: the only certain is that we are perceiving them (berkeley)
basic sensations, raw data of experience. pleasure, see color, taste, etc.
"faint copies" of impressions, not as vivid.
Humes 3 laws of association
resemblance (similar), contiguity (experiencing things together), cause and effect (one event follows another)
Hartley saw psychological and physical events separately but operating together.
while your dog's drooling might be the result of him assoiciating your similing face with the presentation of food
thinking of your house might lead you to think of your dog sitting by the front door
argues for the primacy of the whole over its constituent elements, parts have no meaning without first knowing the whole. Each element of a pyramid may be perfectly round but the whole figure has an overall triangular shape not found in any of its parts.
method of agreement
(mill) one looks for a common element in several instances of an event. can both support some hypothesis and call it into question but i cannot establish cause by itself.
method of difference
(mill) one looks for evidence that the absence of an effect is always accompanied by the absence of a proposed cause.
(mill) methods of agreement and difference have potential for identifying cause, within the limits of induction.
(mill) One looks to see if changes in x are associated with predictable changes in y.
elements of both mental and physical reality (leibniz)
highest level of awareness, we focus our attention on some information, apprehend it fully and make it personally meaningful. (lebniz)
points on the continuum of consciousness wher one goes from unawareness to awareness (lebniz).