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Exam 1 STATS
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Gravity
Terms in this set (49)
What are the different levels of measurement?
NOIR
Nomial, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio
Provide examples of NOIR
Nomial the label/name: male or female, red or blue.
Ordinal order is involved; principal, teacher, student
Interval there are intervals; temperature
Ratio; time, age, miles
what are the two types of data?
measurment and catagorigical.
_________________data uses "quatative" data such as height, weight, age, test scores, etc.
measurement data
______________ data uses "frequency of qualative" data such as gender, ethnicity, types of vehicles, etc.
Categorical data
what are the two basic types of statistics?
Inferential statistics and Descriptive statistics
______________________ statistics has to do with the process if drawing conclusions about a large group of people from a small set of people where the large group is considered the population and the small group of people is considered the sample.
Inferential statistics
What are two types of inferential statistics?
explanatory and control
_____________ inferential statistics explain relationships/ causality
explanatory
_______________ inferential statistics uses experiments to explain relationships/causalities
prediction/control
_____________________ statistics summarize/collect and describe data.
Descriptive statistics
What are the three types of descriptive statistics?
Shape, Spread and Center
_____________________ are used to describe the distribution of data.
measures of shape
What are the different types of shape? (graphical displays)
frequency distributions, frequency polygons, bar charts and histograms
when is it appropriate to use a histogram?
Used for interval and ratio scales and sometimes ordinal
when is it appropriate to use a bar graph?
Nominal and sometimes ordinal, easy to see trends in data but not necessarily shape in terms of symmetry and skewness
when is it appropriate to use a frequency distribution?
all of NOIR
when is it appropriate to use a frequency polygon?
I and R
what is the most appropriate graphical representation of a frequency distribution?
Histogram
what are two types of distributions?
symmetrical and asymmetrical
unimodal, bimodal and multimodal are examples of what type of distribution?
Symmetrical
right (positive skew), left (negative) skew are examples of what type of distributions?
asymmetrical
In a negative skew distribution, the tail is pointing in what direction?
the left
In a positive skew distribution, the tail is pointing in what direction?
The right
which of the following data sets illustrates a skew?
a) 23, 37, 42, 51, 147
b) 12, 15, 18, 21, 24
c) 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, 11
d) 450, 474, 523, 547
a is the answer because there is an out lier in a skew.
________________ are used to represent the "center" of the distribution.
measures of center
_______________ is also known as the "average" value
measures of center
What is the typical value of the center (central tendancy)?
the average
What are the multiple types of measures of center?
mean, median and mode
how do you find the mean?
you add up all the numbers in a data set and then you divide them by the number of values that there are.
how do you find the mode?
you look for the greatest value and remember that it is always the top of a skew
how do you find the median?
you use the middle value and if its an even set of numbers take the two middle numbers, add them together and then divide by two.
In a negative skew distribution, which statistic has the greatest value? The mean, median or mode?
mode Mode < Median < Mean
In a positive skew distribution, which statistic has the greatest value? The mean, median or mode?
mean. Mean < Median < Mode
which measures of centeral tendacy is more susceptable to extreme values in a distribution? The mean, median or mode?
mean
____________________ provide info about the degree to which scores deviate from the average value.
measures of spread
_________________ is how much variation is in the data
spread
_________________ is also known as the variability
measures of spread
what are the different types of spread?
range, interquartile range, variance and standard deviation
________________ is the difference b/w the highest and the lowest values, and its a very broad measurement.
range
________________ is the range b/w the 75th and 25th percentile. Its the middle 50% of the data
interquartile range
_____________________ and ____________________ takes into all of the scores by creating a deviation for each score and summing the results.
Variance and standard deviation
True or False? The variance is always bigger than the standard deviation.
True
The variance of a sample is 9. what is the standard deviation?
3
The standard deviation is always the square root of the variance
________________________ are any quantity, characteristic or # that can be measured or counted.
Variables
what are the two types of variables?
independent and dependent variables
________________- a variable that is selected by the researcher to review response, its supposed to influence some other variable. This variable can be manipulated, measured and observed
Independent Variable
_________________- a variable that is considered the response. It is whats actually measured by the researcher.
Dependent variable
a researcher is studying the predictive validity that obesity has on the risk of diabities in white females. what is the independent and dependent variable?
D: risk of diabities
I: body mass Index
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