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The major early turning point in the rise of the Persian empire was the ___________________________________. AND...In organizing their empire, Persian rulers relied heavily on techniques of administration from the _________________.

victory of Lydia; Mesopotamian

Which of the following lists of Persian empires is correct, chronologically?

acheamenids, seleucids, parthians, sasanids

The Medes and Persians were originally

from central asia/ indo-european; from babylonian and assyrian empires

The founder of the Achaemenid empire was


The greatest of the Achaemenid emperors was


The magnificent capital of the Persian empire constructed by Darius was


Satrapies were _______________________________. AND...The Persian "eyes and ears of the king" ____________________________________________.

administrative and taxation districts governed by satraps; military spies

Which of the following empires normally displayed the greatest degree of toleration toward its subject peoples?


The Persian legal code was designed to _______________________________________________. AND... The center of the Persian communications network was the _____________________________.

be modified when necessary to harmonize with legal principles; Persian royal road.

Who used the words, "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds," to describe the Persian courier service?


The qanat were

underground canals

For his decision to allow them to return to their capital city and rebuild their temple, Darius received high praise from these people. Who were they? AND...The king who failed to follow the normal Persian governing policy of toleration was ____________________________.

jews; xerxes

The battle of Marathon in 490 B.C.E. proved to be

Persian loss

The decisive victory of Alexander of Macedon over the Persians was called the battle of

battle of gaugamela

The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanid empires

employed a basic achaemenid structure of imperial administration

The empire comprising most of the old Achaemenid state that was taken by a general of Alexander the Great was the


The Seleucids were finally defeated in 83 B.C.E. by the

roman conquerors

Which Iranian state followed the Achaemenids and rivaled the Seleucids in greatness?


The Sasanids were defeated in 651 C.E. by

arab warriors

The social structure of the Medes and Persians was originally very similar to the

aryan in india

Zoroastrianism was ______________________________________________. AND...The Gathas were ____________________________________________.

teachings of Zarathustra; ancient Zoroastrian literature included hymns, liturgical works , and treaties on moral and theological themes

Which of the following basic tenets of Zoroastrianism did NOT influence later religions

omnipotent and beneficent diety was responsible for all creation; idea that a purely evil being worked against the creator god, conviction of that the forces of good will ultamately prevail over power of evil-climatic struggle, human beings must strive to observe the highest moral standards, doctrine that individuals will under go judgements. morally upright- rewarded with paradise. evildoers- punishment in hell

Zarathustra viewed the material world ___________________________________________________. AND...What words sum up the view of morality of the Zoroatrians?

a blessing that relfected the benevolent nature of Ahura Mazda; good words, good thoughts, and good good deeds

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