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Types of Therapeutic Diets
Terms in this set (52)
When is a diabetic diet needed?
when person's body doesn't produce enough insulin or body doesn't use it right
What does a diabetic diet control and what must it limit?
blood sugar; carbs
What foods contain carbs?
starches, fruits, milks
Why must carbs be limited in a diabetic diet?
carbs break down into sugar and elevates blood sugar levels
What is a good tip for diabetic diet?
eat same amount of food each day at same time
What foods should be avoided on diabetic diet?
concentrated sweets or regular soft drinks
For whom is a dialysis diet needed?
those with chronic kidney failure (limits amount of food waste kidney has to process)
What food types does a dialysis diet limit? Give examples of last two.
foods high in sodium, potassium (fruits and veggies), and phosphorus (meat and dairy)
Whom is the TLC (therapeutic lifestyle changes) diet used for?
people with high blood cholesterol or to prevent coronary heart disease
What types of nutrients does TLC diet limit?
saturated fat to less than 7% of calories consumed and cholesterol to 200 mg/day
What nutrients does TLC encourage use?
soluble fiber (oatmeal, pears, barley) 10-25 grams, foods with plant sterols and stanols (fortified oj and margarine)
What is the purpose of the clear liquid diet?
relieve thirst and help maintain fluid balance
What is clear liquid diet used for?
post-surgically and following acute vomiting or diarrhea
What foods are allowed on clear liquid diet?
carbonated beverages, coffee, tea, popsicles, hard candy
What foods should be avoided on clear liquid diet?
milk and milk products, fruit juices with pulp
What is the purpose of full-liquid diet?
provide adequately nutritious diet for patients who can't chew
When is full liquid diet used?
acute infection with fever, GI upsets, after surgery
What foods are allowed on the full-liquid diet?
clear liquids, milk, ice cream, creamed veggie soup, mashed potatoes, yogurt, mild cheese sauce, pureed meat
What foods should be avoided on the full-liquid diet?
nuts, coconut, fruit, jam, marmalade
What is the purpose of a soft diet?
provide adequate nutrition for those who have trouble chewing
What foods are allowed on soft diet?
very tender ground, roasted, creamed meat, cooked veggies, pasta, soft raw fruits, soft cereals and bread
What is the purpose of a soft restricted diet?
reduce sodium content in tissue and promote excretion of water
When is soft restricted diet used?
heart failure, hypertension, renal disease, cirrhosis
How is soft restricted diet modified?
2 g of sodium to only 200 mg
What foods should be avoided on soft restricted diet?
all commercial soups, condiments like ketchup, ice cream, soda, carrots, celery, all cheeses, dressings
What is the purpose of a renal diet?
control protein, potassium, sodium and fluid levels in body
What foods are allowed in renal diet?
high biological proteins (meat, chicken, cheese) 10 to 60mg/day, low potassium veggies (cucumber) 500mg/day, fluid intake restricted to daily volume plus 500 ml (including fruit, veggies, milk)
What foods should be avoided on renal diet?
cereal, bread, pasta, raw fruit, nuts, coca-cola, sports drinks
What is the purpose of a high-protein, high carb diet?
to correct large protein losses and raise level of blood albumin
When is high-protein, high carb diet used?
burns, hepatitis, cirrhosis, pregnancy, mono, liver disorder
What foods are allowed on high-protein, high carb diet?
normal diet with added protein
What is purpose of purine-restricted diet?
reduce intake of uric acid producing foods
When is purine-restricted diet used?
uric acid renal stones and gout
What food is allowed on purine-restricted diet?
regular diet plus 2-3 quarts of liquid/day
What foods should be avoided on purine-restricted diet?
fried eggs, lots of meat, broth, gravies, oatmeal and whole wheat, pasta, alcohol
What is the purpose of a bland diet?
to provide diet low in fiber, roughage, mechanical irritants, and chemical stimulants
When is bland diet used?
gastritis, GI disorders, hiatus hernia
What foods should be avoided on bland diet?
fried foods, commercially prepared meat, raw veggies, fresh fruit, whole wheat, chocolate, caffeine
What is the purpose of a low fat, cholesterol-restricted diet?
reduce hyperlipedimia, provide dietary treatment for malabsorption syndromes or acute intolerance for fats
When is a low fat, cholesterol-restricted diet used?
hyperlipedimia, pancreatitis, atherosclerosis, cystic fibrosis
What foods should be avoided on low fat, cholesterol-restricted diet?
five C's of cholesterol (cookies, cream, cake, coconut, chocolate), etc.
What is the purpose of an acid and alkaline diet?
to provide diet in which total acid ash is greater than total alkaline ash each day
When is an acid and alkaline diet used?
retard formation of renal calculi
What are the acid and alkaline diet food groups?
acid ash (meat, whole grains, eggs, cheese, cranberries, prunes, plums), alkaline ash (milk, veggies, fruits), and neutral (sugar, fats, beverages)
What foods are restricted in an acid and alkaline diet?
milk (1 pint/daily), cream (1/3 cup or less/daily), fruit (1 serving), veggies (2 daily), sweets chocolate and nuts restricted
What is the purpose of a high-fiber diet?
soften stool, speed passage of food through digestive tract, lower blood lipids, prevent sharp glucose rise after eating
When is a high-fiber diet used?
diabetes, hyperlipedimia, constipation, anticarcinogenics
What foods are recommended on high-fiber diet?
6g of crude fiber daily (bran cereal, watermelon, prunes, peaches, peas)
What is the purpose of a low residue diet?
reduce stool bulk and slow transit time
When is a low residue diet used?
bowel inflammation, ulcerative colitis, prep for bowel surgery
What foods are allowed on low residue diet?
eggs, well cooked meat, milk, fruit juice, cooked fruit or veggies, white bread, refined cereals (cream of wheat)
What are the 13 major hospital therapeutical diets?
clear liquid diet, full liquid diet, soft diet, soft-restricted diet, renal diet, high-protein high carb diet, purine-restricted diet, bland diet, low fat cholesterol reduced diet, diabetic diet, acid and alkaline diet, high fiber diet, low residue diet
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