If the subject is a singular indefinite pronoun, use a singular verb form (end with s).
What are singular indefinite pronouns?
Pronouns that have no definite number (each, no one, every, everybody, everyone, someone, anyone, somebody, one, anybody, nobody, either, neither)
When a conditional (if...) event occurs in the present...
then the result will occur in the future (If I win the lottery, I will retire)
When discussing a hypothetical event that might have occured in the past...
you must use "would" to describe the possible result
time, place, culture, values
1st , 3rd Omniscient and Limited
Internal and External
the arrangement of words and the order of grammatical elements in a sentence; the way in which words are put together to make meaningful elements, such as phrases, clauses, and sentences.
diction vs. syntax
diction refers to the choice of words while syntax refers to the arrangement of words.
a word that takes the place of a noun.
The noun that the pronoun replaces.
What does a pronoun and its antecedent need to agree upon?
They must agree in number and gender.
Singular Personal Pronouns
he, she, it, his, her, its
Plural Personal Pronouns
they, we, their, our
What do you use if a singular noun is used and the gender is unknown?
"he or she" or "his or her"
Singular Indefinite Pronoun confusion in Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Ex. The team members have an obligation to give their best (the word members is plural, therefore we use their). Everyone has an obligation to give his or her best (everyone refers to each person as an individual, and we do not known their gender, therefore we use his or her)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement: in the case of "either...or" or "neither...nor" situations, what do you do?
The pronoun used should agree with the nearest antecedent. (EX. Neither the boss nor the employees brought their tools to the worksite. We use their because the nearest antecedent, employees, is plural.)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement: What do you do if you refer to a group of people in the collective sense?
Use the pronoun it or its. (EX. The team did not achieve all of its goals for the season)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement: Which form is recommended for writing a paper?
It is recommended that you try to consistently use the plural form.
the writer reveals information about a character and his personality through that character's thoughts, words, and actions, along with how other characters respond to that character, including what they think and say about the character.
the writer makes direct statements about a character's personality and tells what the character is like.
When the theme is obviously stated. (EX. a character says "live while you life, and then die and be done with it!", it is obvious of what the theme is)
Central message or insight into life revealed through the literary work.
Readers think about what the work seems to say about the nature of people or about life. It is not obvious and requires thinking.