85 terms

English mid-terms

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Terms in this set (...)

censor
a person who checks and removes anything offensive from publicly presented work
parenthetical citations
notes in a text that refers to outside sources (e.g., "see 'The Deathly Hallows,' page 300")
secondary source
information about an event that was produced after the event ended
static character
a character who doesn't change over the course of a story but can still be its hero
flat character
a person in a story who does not change or develop, a supporting character with little depth
flashback
an interruption in a story to describe an earlier event
evaluate
to carefully judge the value of something
context
the situation or circumstances to be considered; the language surrounding a word that gives hints to its meaning
subplot
a storyline that is related to the main storyline but is less important
rhetoric
the art of using words to persuade
plagiarism
taking someone else's work or ideas and pretending they're your own
annotated bibliography
a list of books, articles, and documents used to research a topic, with a short description of each one
motif
a recognizable pattern or repeating idea
plot
the main events that form a story
expository writing
a text that gives information and/or defines a topic
bibliography
a list of sources used in an essay or scholarly work, a list of books on a subject or by an author
symbolism
the use of a physical object to represent an abstract idea
round/dynamic character
a realistic character who changes over the course of a story
primary source
an original text or object that was created at the time that's being studied (e.g., a photograph from World War I)
rhetorical appeals
parts of an argument that attempt to make the audience feel, believe, or think a certain thing (logos, ethos, pathos)
poetry
beautiful, often rhythmical writing that is broken up in lines
pathos
the quality in a character or situation that evokes pity or compassion
diction
word choice, the words an author or speaker chooses to create a particular effect
prose
plain-spoken language, as opposed to poetic speech or writing
juxtapose
to place two things side by side as a way to highlight their contrast or differences
strategize
to make a plan for achieving a goal
transcript
a written copy of words that were spoken
voice
the personality expressed by the writer or character
anaphora
when a word or phrase is repeated at the start of every sentence for effect; (in grammar) replacing a word earlier in a sentence with a pronoun (or other word) to avoid repetition within a sentence)
infer
to form an opinion from evidence and reasoning
claim
a statement that something is true, often that a point in an argument is true
logos
moments in an argument that rely on logic and reasoning
ethos
a speaker or writer's authority to express opinions on a subject
analogy
comparison between things otherwise unlike to show their similarities
denotation
the dictionary definition of a word
narrative
a story or telling a story
counterclaim
a statement made to show an argument is false
connotation
the implied meaning or feeling of a word
tone
a general style or mood in speaking or writing; a writer, speaker, or character's attitude toward someone or something in a story
concession
something agreed to; something offered in order to reach agreement
quote
to repeat exactly of someone else's words
refute
to disprove
supporting details
the specific information that proves a main idea
introduce
to bring forward a new idea or concept
argument
a viewpoint, a statement for or against something; a discussion in which people express different opinions about something
conclusion
the last part of something (e.g., of an essay)
Independent clause
A clause containing a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. It can stand alone as a sentence.
Phrase
A group of words that does not contain its own subject or verb. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Simple Sentence
It contains just one independent clause. It can contain other phrases but cannot contain other clauses.
When to use quotation marks for titles?
Titles of short pieces such as magazine articles, chapters, short stories, TV episodes, poems, essays, or songs.
Compound sentence
It contains two or more independent clauses joined by a comma and coordinating conjunction.
Coordinating conjunction
FANBOYSH represents the eight coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so, however.
Semicolon
It can be used to join two closely related independent clauses.
Run-on sentence
It occurs when two sentences are improperly conntected together. (Lack of punctuation, incorrect comma usage)
3 ways to fix a run-on sentence
Use a comma and coordinating conjunction, use a semicolon, and use a period.
What are the 5 ways of using a comma
after an opener (prepositional phrase, participle phrase, gerund phrase), set off appositive, set off a closer, separate items in a series, and with a coordinating conjunction
singular subject-verb agreement
subject: singular, verb: add s (the boy eats cereal every morning).
Plural subject-verb agreement
subject: plural, verb: no s (All of the teachers eat in the lounge)
Where can the subject of a sentence never be found?
It can never be found in an appositive or prepositional phrase.
Compound subjects (joined by and)(subject-verb agreement)
It takes plural verbs (no s). (Gary and I switch places)
In either/or situations (subject-verb agreement)
The verb must agree with the subject nearest to the verb (neither Lisa nor Betty is attending)
Singular indefinite pronoun (subject-verb agreement)
If the subject is a singular indefinite pronoun, use a singular verb form (end with s).
What are singular indefinite pronouns?
Pronouns that have no definite number (each, no one, every, everybody, everyone, someone, anyone, somebody, one, anybody, nobody, either, neither)
When a conditional (if...) event occurs in the present...
then the result will occur in the future (If I win the lottery, I will retire)
When discussing a hypothetical event that might have occured in the past...
you must use "would" to describe the possible result
Setting
time, place, culture, values
POV
1st , 3rd Omniscient and Limited
Conflict
Internal and External
syntax
the arrangement of words and the order of grammatical elements in a sentence; the way in which words are put together to make meaningful elements, such as phrases, clauses, and sentences.
diction vs. syntax
diction refers to the choice of words while syntax refers to the arrangement of words.
Pronoun
a word that takes the place of a noun.
antecedent
The noun that the pronoun replaces.
What does a pronoun and its antecedent need to agree upon?
They must agree in number and gender.
Singular Personal Pronouns
he, she, it, his, her, its
Plural Personal Pronouns
they, we, their, our
What do you use if a singular noun is used and the gender is unknown?
"he or she" or "his or her"
Singular Indefinite Pronoun confusion in Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Ex. The team members have an obligation to give their best (the word members is plural, therefore we use their). Everyone has an obligation to give his or her best (everyone refers to each person as an individual, and we do not known their gender, therefore we use his or her)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement: in the case of "either...or" or "neither...nor" situations, what do you do?
The pronoun used should agree with the nearest antecedent. (EX. Neither the boss nor the employees brought their tools to the worksite. We use their because the nearest antecedent, employees, is plural.)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement: What do you do if you refer to a group of people in the collective sense?
Use the pronoun it or its. (EX. The team did not achieve all of its goals for the season)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement: Which form is recommended for writing a paper?
It is recommended that you try to consistently use the plural form.
Indirect Characterization
the writer reveals information about a character and his personality through that character's thoughts, words, and actions, along with how other characters respond to that character, including what they think and say about the character.
Direct Characterization
the writer makes direct statements about a character's personality and tells what the character is like.
Direct Theme
When the theme is obviously stated. (EX. a character says "live while you life, and then die and be done with it!", it is obvious of what the theme is)
Theme
Central message or insight into life revealed through the literary work.
Implied theme
Readers think about what the work seems to say about the nature of people or about life. It is not obvious and requires thinking.