59 terms

BMD 115 EXAM 1

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Cephalic
relating to cranium or head
Cephalization
concentration of neural/sensory organs towards body's anterior end (cranial)
Recall general characteristics of the brain
Appearance-mass of wrinkled, pinkish-gray tissue
Weight-1,450-1,600g making up ~ 2% of total body weight
*adult brain 4x bigger than new born
Size -body mass determines brain size
*male brain is bigger than female brain
Recall surface anatomy of the brain
i. cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum)
ii. cerebellum
iii. brain stem
Recall the 3 primary brain vesicles
a. prosencephalon (forebrain) [telencephalon and diencephalon]
b. mesencephalon (midbrain)
c. rhombencephalon (hindbrain)[metencephalon and myelencephalon]
Name the adult brain structures that are derived from each of the secondary vesicles.
a. Cerebrum
b. Diencephalon
c. Brainstem
d. Cerebellum
e. Spinal cord
List the adult neural canal regions from superior to inferior.
a. Lateral ventricles
b. Third ventricle
c. Cerebral aqueduct
d. Fourth vertical
e. Central canal
Describe how the midbrain and cervical flexures form.
Folds to make use of all available space
Recall the purpose of brain surface convolutions and when they first appear.
Increses the brain surface area
List the 4 major adult brain regions and corresponding structures.
1. cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum)
2. diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus)
3. cerebellum
4. brain stem (midbrain, pons, medulla
White Matter
long , myelinated fibers arranged in tracts
Grey Matter
short, nonmyelinated fibers
Distinguish between white/gray matter patterns in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord regions
spinal cord = gray-white
brain stem = gray-white
cerebrum/cerebellum = gray-white-gray
Lateral Ventricles
paired C-shaped cerebral structures separated medially by thin membrane called septum pellucidum
Third Ventricle
middle ventricle located in diencephalon
fourth ventricle
hindbrain location being dorsal to pons
State the purpose of the lateral and medial apertures.
CSF moves into external spaces brain and spinal cord
Gyrus
elevated ridge-like area
Sulcus
shallow groove located between adjacent gyri
Fissure
deep groove separating large brain area
Cortex
superficial gray matter, provides cognitive function
White Matter
subcortical area, allows communication between cerebrum & other CNS structures (e.g. spinal cord)
Basal Nuclei
organized subcortical gray matter areas, roles in motor control, attention, cognition
Frontal
higher brain functions
Pariental
integrates sensory information
Temporal
auditory processing/long-term memory
Occipital
visual processing
Insula
emotion, homeostasis regulation, gustation (taste)
Discuss why the cerebral cortex is called the seat of the "conscious mind".
Self-awarness, non-emotional cognitive brain area
Motor
located anterior to central sulcus
Sensor
located posterior to central sulcus
Association
located in multiple areas
Explain the cortical concepts of lateralization
hemispheres are not always equal in function, one side specializes in a particular task ("handles it")
Explain the cortical concepts of cerebral dominance
tendency of one hemisphere to exercise more control over functions like language & handedness
Explain the cortical concepts of contralateral functioning
sensory & motor functions are controlled by opposite cerebral hemisphere
Describe the relationship between right/left-handedness and language
Left- controls right hand and has greater language skills
Right-controls left hand and has greater visual skills
Discuss the function of cerebral white matter tracts.
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Describe commissural (corpus callosum) location and function
connects same area of different hemispheres, allows them to communicate & act as a "whole
Describe association location and function
connects different areas of same hemisphere
Describe projection fibers location and function
long sensory/motor fibers, unites cortex w/ lower brain/spinal cord areas
Describe cerebral basal nuclei structure and recall their general functions.
Organized groups of subcortical gray matter located deep inside white matter of each cerebral hemisphere. They receive input from cerebral cortex & other nuclei; filters out incorrect/inappropriate responses (emotional control); starts, stops, monitors movement intensity
Thalamus
Deep, hidden brain region, 80% diencephalon.
Paired, egg-shaped masses of gray matter nuclei groups, communicates directly w/ cerebral cortex.
Receives all afferent (sensory) impulses and relays information to cerebral cortex.
Hypothalamus
Located directly inferior to thalamus composed of several small nuclei of varying function, includes mammillary bodies, infundibulum (pituitary stalk). It is the main body visceral (autonomic) control center
Epithalamus
Located in the dorsal part of diencephalon, situated above/ behind thalamus that contain pineal gland. Pineal gland produces melatonin, a hormone involved in sleep regulation, sleep-wake cycles (circadian rhythms), mood
Midbrain
coordination of sensorimotor information
Pons
coordinates motor activity between (1) pons cerebellum, (2) cerebral motor cortex cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata
cardiac rate/depth & respiratory rate/depth
and crossover point of corticospinal tracts
Describe location, important structures and functions of cerebellum
Located dorsal to pons & medulla. Has:
vermis - medial worm-like structure connecting hemispheres

hemispheres - two bilaterally symmetrical structures separated into 3 lobes (anterior, posterior, flocculonodular) by deep fissures

folia - transversely oriented pleat-like gyri of gray matter cortex*

arbor vitae - tree-like pattern of central white matter

Purkinje cells - large cortical neurons w/ many dendritic branches, major role in controlling motor movement

cerebellar punducles - connects cerebellum to brain stem/

It provides precise timing/correct muscle contraction pattern; plays role in cognition (word association, puzzle solving); ensures proper balance/posture
Limbic foration system
Situated around thalamus, composed of hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate gyrus. Controls emotional response, memory formation
Reticular functional system
Located in brain stem, made up of raphe nuclei, medial nuclei group, lateral nuclei group. Regulates cerebral cortex cortical arousal (RAS), filters sensory input, control of motor behaviors
Describe 4 protective mechanisms of the brain.
bone - prevent/reduce traumatic injury

meninges - connective tissue membrane barriers

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - support

blood-brain barrier - cellular/metabolic barrier altering brain capillary permeability
Describe location, structure, and functions of the meninges.
lie between skull & cerebral gray matter cortex and have 3 successive connective tissue membranes lying external to both brain/spinal cord. It cover/protect CNS; protect blood vessels/enclose venous sinuses; contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); and forms partitions within skull
Order meningeal dura, arachnoid, and pia maters from superficial to deep
Dura
Arachonid
Pia
34. Discuss the composition, location, and function of the dural septa
protective dura mater membranes extending inward to separate cerebral hemispheres/cerebellar lobes
35. Describe the relationship between pia mater and brain blood capillaries.
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36. Describe location, composition, and functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Location: CSF circulates internally in brain ventricles & externally in subarachnoid space around brain/spinal cord(has some type of protection)
Composition: clear/colorless filtrate produced from blood plasma
Functions: buoyancy,protection, chemical stability
37. Describe location, structure, and function of choroid plexuses
They are specialized tissue hanging from roof of each ventricle forming CSF from blood plasma, lined w/ ependymal cells w/ tight junctions all around, porous pia mater capillaries leak blood plasma into interstitum , processed by ependymal cell ion pumps, released into ventricle
38. Discuss the structure of the blood-brain barrier and how it functions.
Located in most brain areas, not in brain stem vomiting center & hypothalamus (areas analyzing blood make up).
Recall 5 brain disorders and their associated defects
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