BMD 115 EXAM 1
Terms in this set (59)
relating to cranium or head
concentration of neural/sensory organs towards body's anterior end (cranial)
Recall general characteristics of the brain
Appearance-mass of wrinkled, pinkish-gray tissue
Weight-1,450-1,600g making up ~ 2% of total body weight
*adult brain 4x bigger than new born
Size -body mass determines brain size
*male brain is bigger than female brain
Recall surface anatomy of the brain
i. cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum)
iii. brain stem
Recall the 3 primary brain vesicles
a. prosencephalon (forebrain) [telencephalon and diencephalon]
b. mesencephalon (midbrain)
c. rhombencephalon (hindbrain)[metencephalon and myelencephalon]
Name the adult brain structures that are derived from each of the secondary vesicles.
e. Spinal cord
List the adult neural canal regions from superior to inferior.
a. Lateral ventricles
b. Third ventricle
c. Cerebral aqueduct
d. Fourth vertical
e. Central canal
Describe how the midbrain and cervical flexures form.
Folds to make use of all available space
Recall the purpose of brain surface convolutions and when they first appear.
Increses the brain surface area
List the 4 major adult brain regions and corresponding structures.
1. cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum)
2. diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus)
4. brain stem (midbrain, pons, medulla
long , myelinated fibers arranged in tracts
short, nonmyelinated fibers
Distinguish between white/gray matter patterns in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord regions
spinal cord = gray-white
brain stem = gray-white
cerebrum/cerebellum = gray-white-gray
paired C-shaped cerebral structures separated medially by thin membrane called septum pellucidum
middle ventricle located in diencephalon
hindbrain location being dorsal to pons
State the purpose of the lateral and medial apertures.
CSF moves into external spaces brain and spinal cord
elevated ridge-like area
shallow groove located between adjacent gyri
deep groove separating large brain area
superficial gray matter, provides cognitive function
subcortical area, allows communication between cerebrum & other CNS structures (e.g. spinal cord)
organized subcortical gray matter areas, roles in motor control, attention, cognition
higher brain functions
integrates sensory information
auditory processing/long-term memory
emotion, homeostasis regulation, gustation (taste)
Discuss why the cerebral cortex is called the seat of the "conscious mind".
Self-awarness, non-emotional cognitive brain area
located anterior to central sulcus
located posterior to central sulcus
located in multiple areas
Explain the cortical concepts of lateralization
hemispheres are not always equal in function, one side specializes in a particular task ("handles it")
Explain the cortical concepts of cerebral dominance
tendency of one hemisphere to exercise more control over functions like language & handedness
Explain the cortical concepts of contralateral functioning
sensory & motor functions are controlled by opposite cerebral hemisphere
Describe the relationship between right/left-handedness and language
Left- controls right hand and has greater language skills
Right-controls left hand and has greater visual skills
Discuss the function of cerebral white matter tracts.
Describe commissural (corpus callosum) location and function
connects same area of different hemispheres, allows them to communicate & act as a "whole
Describe association location and function
connects different areas of same hemisphere
Describe projection fibers location and function
long sensory/motor fibers, unites cortex w/ lower brain/spinal cord areas
Describe cerebral basal nuclei structure and recall their general functions.
Organized groups of subcortical gray matter located deep inside white matter of each cerebral hemisphere. They receive input from cerebral cortex & other nuclei; filters out incorrect/inappropriate responses (emotional control); starts, stops, monitors movement intensity
Deep, hidden brain region, 80% diencephalon.
Paired, egg-shaped masses of gray matter nuclei groups, communicates directly w/ cerebral cortex.
Receives all afferent (sensory) impulses and relays information to cerebral cortex.
Located directly inferior to thalamus composed of several small nuclei of varying function, includes mammillary bodies, infundibulum (pituitary stalk). It is the main body visceral (autonomic) control center
Located in the dorsal part of diencephalon, situated above/ behind thalamus that contain pineal gland. Pineal gland produces melatonin, a hormone involved in sleep regulation, sleep-wake cycles (circadian rhythms), mood
coordination of sensorimotor information
coordinates motor activity between (1) pons cerebellum, (2) cerebral motor cortex cerebellum
cardiac rate/depth & respiratory rate/depth
and crossover point of corticospinal tracts
Describe location, important structures and functions of cerebellum
Located dorsal to pons & medulla. Has:
vermis - medial worm-like structure connecting hemispheres
hemispheres - two bilaterally symmetrical structures separated into 3 lobes (anterior, posterior, flocculonodular) by deep fissures
folia - transversely oriented pleat-like gyri of gray matter cortex*
arbor vitae - tree-like pattern of central white matter
Purkinje cells - large cortical neurons w/ many dendritic branches, major role in controlling motor movement
cerebellar punducles - connects cerebellum to brain stem/
It provides precise timing/correct muscle contraction pattern; plays role in cognition (word association, puzzle solving); ensures proper balance/posture
Limbic foration system
Situated around thalamus, composed of hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate gyrus. Controls emotional response, memory formation
Reticular functional system
Located in brain stem, made up of raphe nuclei, medial nuclei group, lateral nuclei group. Regulates cerebral cortex cortical arousal (RAS), filters sensory input, control of motor behaviors
Describe 4 protective mechanisms of the brain.
bone - prevent/reduce traumatic injury
meninges - connective tissue membrane barriers
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - support
blood-brain barrier - cellular/metabolic barrier altering brain capillary permeability
Describe location, structure, and functions of the meninges.
lie between skull & cerebral gray matter cortex and have 3 successive connective tissue membranes lying external to both brain/spinal cord. It cover/protect CNS; protect blood vessels/enclose venous sinuses; contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); and forms partitions within skull
Order meningeal dura, arachnoid, and pia maters from superficial to deep
34. Discuss the composition, location, and function of the dural septa
protective dura mater membranes extending inward to separate cerebral hemispheres/cerebellar lobes
35. Describe the relationship between pia mater and brain blood capillaries.
36. Describe location, composition, and functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Location: CSF circulates internally in brain ventricles & externally in subarachnoid space around brain/spinal cord(has some type of protection)
Composition: clear/colorless filtrate produced from blood plasma
Functions: buoyancy,protection, chemical stability
37. Describe location, structure, and function of choroid plexuses
They are specialized tissue hanging from roof of each ventricle forming CSF from blood plasma, lined w/ ependymal cells w/ tight junctions all around, porous pia mater capillaries leak blood plasma into interstitum , processed by ependymal cell ion pumps, released into ventricle
38. Discuss the structure of the blood-brain barrier and how it functions.
Located in most brain areas, not in brain stem vomiting center & hypothalamus (areas analyzing blood make up).
Recall 5 brain disorders and their associated defects