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Operations Chapter 3- Product and Service Design
Terms in this set (35)
The Outsourcers. Production companies that specialize in designing and manufacturing products for other companies. Very successful. An organization capable of manufacturing and/or purchasing all the components needed to produce a finished product of device. Will take various roles for a company.
The one thing that it can do better than its competitors. Want one that yields a long term competitive advantage to the company. Has 3 characteristics: Provides potential access to a wide variety of markets. It increases perceived customer benefits. It is hard for competitors to imitate. Ex: Product design, employee dedication.
Phase 0: Planning
Precedes the project approval and launch of the actual product development process. Begins with corporate strategy. Includes assessment technology developments and market objectives. Output-project mission statement, which specifies the target market for the product, business goals, key assumptions, and constraints.
Phase 1: Concept Development
The needs of the target market are identified, alternative product concepts are generated and evaluated. One or more concepts are selected for further development and testing.
A description of the form, function, and features of a product and is usually accompanied by a set of specifications, an analysis of competitive products, and economic justification.
Phase 2: System level design
The product architecture and the decomposition of the product into subsytems and components. Final assembly scheme is during this phase. Output- geometric layout of the product, a functional specification of each of the product's subsystems, and preliminary process flow diagram for the final assembly process.
Phase 3: Design detail
The complete specification of the geometry, materials, and tolerances of the parts. Establish Process plan, and tooling. Output- drawings or computer files describing the geometry of each part of its production tooling, the specifications of purchased parts, and the process plans for the fabrication and assembly of the product.
Phase 4: Testing and refinement
The construction and evaluation of multiple reproduction versions of the product. Not using actual processes for prototype. Prototypes are tested to determine whether the product will work a designed and whether the product satisfies customer needs.
Phase 5: Production ramp up
To train the workforce and to work out any remaining problems in the production processes. Carefully evaluated to identify any remaining flaws. Gradual transition from production ramp up to ongoing production. Eventually the product is launched and becomes available for widespread distribution.
(GENERIC) When a firm begins product development with a market opportunity and then uses whatever available technologies are required to satisfy the market need. The market pulls the development decisions. The team begins with a market opportunity and selects appropriate technologies to meet customer needs. (Generic Product Development Process) EX: Sporting goods, furniture, tools
Variants of Generic Product Development Process Types
Generic, Technology-push products, Platform products, Process-Intensive Products, Customized products, High-risk products, Quick-build products, Complex systems products.
Generic Product Development process
Describes the basic steps needed to design a product. Steps and activities a firm employs to conceive, design, and bring a product to market. 6 phases. (Planning, Concept development, System-level design, design detail, testing and refinement, production ramp up.
Technology Push Products
Firm begins with new technology and looks for an appropriate market in which to apply this technology. Technology pushed development. Planning phase involves matching technology and market. Concept development assumes a given technology. Ex: Gore-Tex, rainwear, Tyvek envelopes
Built around a preexisting technological subsystem. The team assumes that the new product will be built around an established technological subsystem. A technology platform. Concept development assumes a proven technology platform. Products are more simpler to develop. Ex: Hybrid motor used in the Toyota Prius, the Microsoft Vista operating system. Video imaging system used in Canon., Consumer electronics, computers, printers
Similarity of platform products and technology push products
The team begins the development effort with an assumption that the product concept will embody a particular technology.
Difference of platform products and technology push products
A technology platform has already demonstrated its usefulness in the marketplace in meeting customer needs.
Characteristics of the product are highly constrained by the production process. The production process has an impact on properties of the product so that product design cannot be separated from the production process design. Produced in high volumes, bulk. Not discrete goods. Either an existing production process must be specified from the start or both product and process must be developed together from the start. Ex: semiconductors, foods, chemicals, paper, snack foods, breakfast cereals, chemicals.
New products are slight variations of existing configurations. Typically developed in response to a specific order by a customer. Setting values of design variables such as physical dimensions and materials. Quick. Use of high structured designs. Similarity of projects allows for a streamlined and highly structured development process. Ex: switches, motors, batteries, containers
High Risk products
Technical or market uncertainties create high risks of failure. Risks are identified early and tracked throughout the process Analysis and testing activities take place as early as possible. Entail unusually large uncertainties related to the technology or market so that there is substantial technical or market risk. Address larger risks in the early staged of product development. Asses levels of risk on a regular basis with the expectation that risk is being reduced over time and not postponed. Ex: pharmaceuticals, space systems
Rapid modeling and protoyping enables many design-build-test cycles. Detail design and testing phases are repeated a number of times until the product is completed or time/budget runs out. Concept development, the system-level phase entails decomposition of the product into high, medium, low priority features. Several cycles of design, build, integrate, and test. beginning with the highest priorities. Us each result of each cycle to learn how to modify the priorities for the next cycle. Customers may be involved in the testing process. Ex: Software, cell phones.
Systems must be decomposed into several subsystems and many components. Subsystems and components are developed by many teams working in parallel, followed by system integration and validation. Big, complicated. Larger scale products composed of many interacting subsytems and components. Concurrent engineering. Separate development teams working at once. Extensive testing and validation of the product. Ex: Airplanes, jet engines, automobiles.
The ultimate in integration process design and new product or service design. Performing product and service development engineering functions in tandem to reduce time and improve communication. Tandem (At the same time(
Quality function deployment (QFD)
One approach to getting the voice of the customer into the design specification of a product. Uses interfunctional teams from marketing, design engineering, and manufacturing. Begins with studying and listening to customers to determine the characteristics of a superior product. Customer requirements. Better understanding and focus on product characteristics that require improvement.
House of Quality Matrix
Customer requirement information. Helps the team translate customer requirements into concrete operating or engineering goals. Better understanding of one another's goals and issues. Helps the team focus on building a product that satisfies customers. 1st. Develop a list of customer requirements. 2nd. Customers are asked to compare the company's product to the competition. 3rd. A set of technical characteristics of the product is developed related directly to customer requirements.
Value Analysis/Value Engineering
Simplify products and processes. Achieve equivalent or better performance at a lower cost while maintaining all functional requirements defined by the customer. Identifies and eliminates unnecessary cost. Performed before the production stage. Cost-Avoidance method.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA)
Manufacturing engineers and designers need to consult with each other during the design stage. Concurrent engineering. To avoid problems. The greatest improvements related to DFMS arise from simplification of the product by reducing the number of separate parts.
Direct customer involvement in the process introduces significant variability in the process in terms of both the time that it takes to serve a customer and the level of knowledge required of the firm's employees. General factors: he service experience fit, the operational fit, and the financial impact.
Service experience fit
The new service should fit into the current service experience for the customer. Ex: Disneyland + cameras to capture memories.
Will you have to have new operational skills? Ex: grocery store + home delivery. Requires completely new skills.
Cost of design and implementing.
the incorporation of environmental considerations in the design and development of products or services.
Measuring Product Development Performance
Relate to the speed and frequency of bringing new products online, to the productivity of the actual development process, and to the quality of the actual products introduced. (Time to market, Productivity, Quality)
Time to Market measure
Frequency of new product introductions. Time for initial concept to market introduction. Number started and number completed. Actual versus plan. Percentage of sales coming from new products.
Engineering hours per project. Cost of materials and tooling per project. Actual versus plan.
Conformance-reliability in use, Design-performance and customer satisfaction, Yield-factory and field.
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