Explanation: Tension-type headaches often are more responsive to nonpharmacologic techniques, such as biofeedback, massage, acupuncture, relaxation, imagery, and physical therapy, than other types of headache. For people with poor posture, a combination of range-of-motion exercises, relaxation, and posture improvement may be helpful. The other options are usually best treated with medications that focus on the cause of the pain.
Radiation of pain
Pain reproduced by stimuli
Explanation: Deep somatic pain originates in deep body structures, such as the periosteum, muscles, tendons, joints, and blood vessels. This pain is more diffuse than cutaneous pain. Various stimuli, such as strong pressure exerted on bone, ischemia to a muscle, and tissue damage, can produce deep somatic pain. Radiation of pain from the original site of injury can occur. Cutaneous pain is a sharp pain with a burning quality, abrupt or slow in onset, and can be localized.
Sitting with the client and having a conversation
Explanation: Distraction does not eliminate pain, but it can make pain more tolerable. It may serve as a type of sensory shielding whereby attention to pain is sacrificed to pay attention to other stimuli that are easily perceived. Examples of distraction include counting, repeating phrases or poems, and engaging in activities that require concentration, such as projects, activities, work, conversation, or describing pictures. Television, adventure movies, music, and humor also can provide distraction.
Naproxen sodium and metoclopramide
Explanation: Based on clinical trials, first-line agents include acetylsalicylic acid, combinations of acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and caffeine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug analgesics (e.g., naproxen sodium, ibuprofen), serotonin (5-HT1) receptor agonists (e.g., sumatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan), ergotamine derivatives (e.g., dihydroergotamine), and antiemetic medications (e.g., ondansetron, metoclopramide). Morphine, tramadol, and syrup of ipecac are not first-line drugs in the treatment of migraine.