69 terms

Chapter 22 Reproduction

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Gametes
sex cells which are spermatozoa and ovum
Meiosis
form of cell division that produces sex cells
Zygote
an egg that has been fertilized by a sperm cell
Ovum
the sex cell from the female parent
Sperm
the sex cell from the male parent
Essential Male Reproductive Organ
Teste - produces the male sex cells
Accessory Male Reproductive Organs
Ducts, glands, and the external genitalia
Male External Genitalia
Penis and scrotum
Tunica albugenia
tough outer covering of the teste
Seminiferous tubules
small tubes in the testes where new sperm cells are created
Interstitial Cells
cells in the testes between the seminiferous tubules that secrete the male hormone testosterone
Speratpogenesis
the process of sperm cell production through meiosis in the testes
Spermatogonia
sperm stem cells, all sperm cell start as spermatogonia
Spermatids
immature sperm cells not yet capable of fertilization
Spermatozoa
mature sperm cells capable of fertilization
3 parts of the Sperm cell
Head - contains DNA
Mid-piece or body - mitochondria to make ATP
Tail - use to propel the cell
Acrosome
the tip of the head of the sperm cells containing enzymes to help it enter the egg cell for fertilization
Epididymis
coiled tube structure behind the teste where sperms cells travel to mature and be stored
Vas Deferens
a tube that carries sperm cells from the epididymis to the urethra during ejaculation
Semen
the fluid that leaves the penis during ejaculation, composed of millions of sperm cells along with secretions from reproductive glands
Seminal Vesicle
gland located on posterior side of the bladder that secretes a fluid containing fructose that the sperm cells use to make ATP
Prostate Gland
a gland located below the bladder that secretes a fluid that activates the sperm cells and neutralizes acids in the vagina
Bulbourethral Gland
located at the base of the penis and secretes a clear fluid into the urethra prior to ejaculation to lubricate the urethra
Glans Penis
a term referring to the tip or the head of the penis
Scrotum
A skin sac that contains the testes and epididymis
Function of the scrotum
to regulate the temperature of the testes, spermatogenesis happens best at a temperature a few degrees cooler than body temperature
Erectile tissue
tissue in the penis that fills with blood causing the penis to become erect
Corpora cavernosa
two columns of erectile on the dorsal or top side of the penis
Corpus spongiosum
single column of erectile tissue on the ventral or bottom side of the penis that contains the urethra
Essential Female Reproductive Organ
the ovaries which produce the ovum
Accessory Female Reproductive Organs
ducts, glands and external genitalia
Ovaries
produce, store and release the ovum
Oocyte
a cell that will develop and grow into an ovum
Ovulation
the process of a graffian follicle rupturing and an ovum being released from the ovary
Primordial Ovarian Follicle
the most immature follicle in the ovary containing an oocyte surrounded by a thin cells sac
Primary Follicle
the second stage of a developing follicle
Graafian Follicle
a large mature follicle filled with fluid and an ovum
Corpus Luteum
a temporary endocrine structure, after ovulation the Graffian Follicle turns into this
Oogenesis
the process of forming an egg cell in the ovary
What is produced by meiosis in the ovary?
1 ovum and 3 polar bodies
Estrogen
female sex hormone produced by cells in the ovarian follicle that maintains sexual characteristics
Progesterone
female sex hormone produced by the corpus luteum that regulates activities in the uterus
Uterine or Fallopian Tubes
a tube that carries an egg from the ovary to the uterus and is the location of fertilization
Fimbriae
finger like structures at the ends of the uterine tubes that draw the egg into the uterine tube after ovulation
oophorectomy
the surgical removal of an ovary
Hysterectomy
surgical removal of the uterus
Fundus of the Uterus
superior or top portion of the uterus
Uterine Body
the large middle portion of the uterus
Cervix
the narrow inferior part of the uterus that leads to the vagina
Endometrium
the inside lining of the uterus where implantation of an embryo takes place
Myometrium
the middle layer in the wall of the uterus made of smooth muscle
Perimetrium
the outer protective covering of the uterus
Vagina
the tube that connects the uterus to the outside of the body
Female External Genitalia
mons pubis, clitoris, opening of urethra and vagina, labia major and labia minora,
Labia minora
inner skin folds that protect the opening of the urethra and vagina
Labia majora
outer skin folds that protect the opening of the urethra and vagina
Clitoris
small anterior structure that contains erectile tissue
Vestibule
area between the labia minora where the opening of the urethra and vagina can be found
Perineum
the area between the vaginal opening and the anus
Episiotomy
surgical cut in the perineum during childbirth allowing a wider opening for the baby to pass through
Menstrual Cycle
a period of 28 days in which the uterus, ovaries, vagina, and breasts go through a series of changes due to changes in hormone levels in the body
What are the three phases of the Menstrual Cycle?
Menses
Proliferative Phase
Secretory Phase
Menses
the first 5-7 days of the menstrual cycle when the endometrium is sloughed causing bleeding
Proliferative Phase
the phase of the menstrual cycle from the end of menses to ovulation on day 14. The endometrium is repaired and grows in thickness
Ovulation
happens on day 14 of the menstrual cycle when an egg is released from the ovary
Secretory Phase
the phase of the menstrual cycle from ovulation to the end of the cycle and includes a continued thickening of the endometrium and glandular secretions preparing for implantation
What triggers menses to begin?
a decrease in estrogen and progesterone when there is no fertilized egg
What triggers an immature follicle to mature for ovulation?
A hormone called follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland
What causes ovulation?
A sharp increase Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
STUDY GUIDE