a)surveys: may use interview or questionnaire format; used to ask people questions to get descriptions of behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, opinions; easy to manipulate answers in a socially acceptable way; b)case studies: intensive study of one or a few people or a situation; useful if situation is rare or complicated; used in neuropsychology or the study of the relationship of brain and nervous system functioning to thinking and behavior; limited in that behavior and mental processes may not be representative beyond the person or situation studied; useful in gathering new information; c)naturalistic/correlational study: studies behavior and mental processes as they happen in actual life; an example is ethology or studying behavior as it occurs in its actual environment; potential problems: that people may react differently when they know they are being observed and if observers have certain expectations, the results may reflect the expectations and not actual behavior; advantages of the correlational method are that results help to describe and predict behavior, help to evaluate psychological theories and explanations for behavior, and possibly lead to new, improved theories; limitations or disadvantages are that correlations are open to different interpretations, that correlations show how strongly variables are related but not why, and correlations cannot establish cause and effect; d)experimental/lab and field studies: in the simplest case, control one variable and observe its effects on behavior and/or mental processes; involves studying the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable using a control group as a baseline measure to compare with the behavior or mental processes of an experimental group; assignment of participants to these groups affects experimental outcomes; potential problems include effects of confounding variables which can confuse or cloud results. psychotherapy = treatment of psychological disorders using psychological methods; use of guided conversations; client or patient learns different ways to think and act; 5 basic features : (1)client/patient = person suffering and seeking help; (2)therapist/helper person who is accepted as able to help the client; (3)theory/rationale = model used to select treatment procedures and approaches; may be medical, psychodynamic, behavioral, phenomenological, etc.; (4)procedures = used to deal with client's problems; developed from therapeutic model; assume a variety of causes; (5)relationship = between patient/client and therapist; must be positive to be effective; client should feel optimistic, that therapy will help and be motivated to work toward solutions to problems. CLIENTS AND THERAPISTS - 3 categories of clients: inpatient = treated in hospital or resident institution; outpatient = receive therapy while living in community; personal growth = no mental disorder, goals include life enrichment and increasing personal life skills. 4 categories of providers: psychiatrists = M.D. + training in diagnosing and treating mental disorders; psychologists = Ph.D. + training in diagnosing and treating mental orders - may have more years of specialized training in these areas than psychiatrists - do not prescribe drugs - usually equivalent number of years of training as psychiatrists; psychiatric social workers = M.S. from school of social work required for entry level private practice; psychiatric nurse/occupational therapist/recreational therapist = usually work under supervision of licensed provider. OTHER SOURCES OF HELP - most patients go first to "unofficial" helpers who help patient without formal treatment; self-help groups may become major form of mental health treatment in 1990's. GOALS AND METHODS - general goals: change thinking and behavior to be happier and more productive; specific goals: developed from general goals - understand problems, decrease emotional discomfort, increase control over behavior; increase and improve emotional expression; 3 main methods: (a) provide psychological support; (a) help eliminate negative behavior and learn more effective ones; (c) promote insight and self exploration, consider subtle and general aspects of personality; why use particular method: influenced by problems, preferences, and financial resources of client; influenced by time available and therapist's preference for theory and method.