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anatomy and physiology test chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
cephalic
head
cranial
skull
ophthalmic
eyes
buccal
cheeks
oral
mouth
otic
ears
frontal
forehead
thoracic (pectoral)
chest
sternal
sternum
mammary
pectorals
costal
ribs
abdominal (celiac)
stomach
pelvic
pelvis
brachial
bicep
antecubital
inner elbow
antebrachial (cubital)
forearm
carpal
wrist
palmar
palm of hand
umbilical
belly button
inguinal (groin)
crotch
leg (crural)
lower leg (below knee)
tarsal
ankle
occipital
back of skull
cervical
neck
axillary
armpit
vertebral
spine
lumbar
lower back
sacral
butt crack
gluteal
butt cheek
perineal
back part of groin
femoral
thigh
popliteal
back of knee
cutaneous
skin
pedal
foot
plantar
sole of foot
dorsal cavity (2 cavities)
spinal cavity, cranial cavity
ventral cavity (2 cavities)
thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity (pelvic and abdominal cavities)
2 major cavities in the body
dorsal (smaller), ventral (larger)
thoracic cavity (where is it)
chest to the diaphragm (heart, lungs, esophagus, and trachea)
transverse plane
in half top and bottom
saggital
in half right and left
frontal (coronal plane)
in half like a sub sandwich (where your clothes cut your body in half)
umbilical region of the abdomen
center (around bellybutton)
epigastric region of the abdomen
above the bellybutton (above the umbilical region)
hypogastric region
below the bellybutton (below the umbilical region). pelvic region
right/left iliac regions
right/left sides of the pelvis (if you are looking at the picture it is flipped. right iliac on your left side looking at it and left iliac on your right side looking at it)
right/left hypochondriac regions
right and left sides of the ribs (if you are looking at the picture it is flipped. right hypochondriac on your left side looking at it and left hypochondriac on your right side looking at it)
4 quadrants of the body
cut in 4 at the bellybutton. transversal and saggital cuts. right upper (when looking at the picture it is on your left), left upper (same for this one--on right when looking at it), right lower, left lower
anterior
closer to the front of the body
posterior
closer to the back of the body
superior
above
inferior
below
superficial
closer to the surface (skin)
deep
deeper inside (farther away from skin)
proximal
closer to the trunk of the body
distal
farther away from the trunk of the body
digital
fingers
stressor
something that disrupts homeostasis in the body
homeostasis
the balance in temperature, pressure, water/oxygen levels etc. that need to be maintained in the body. not maintaining homeostasis can lead to illness and even death
negative feedback
returns the body to homeostasis
positive feedback
stimulate or amplify changes (pregnancy--uterus gets larger etc)
medial
closer to the middle of the body
lateral
closer to the sides of the body
11 organ systems
integumentary, digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, endocrine, skeletal, muscular, urinary, nervous, reproductive
integumentary system
skin, hair, nails, sweat and sebaceous glands. covers and protects the body; regulates temperature
digestive system
mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas. ingests and digests food; absorbs nutrients into blood
cardiovascular system
heart, blood vessels, blood. transports material from one part of the body to another; defends against disease
respiratory system
air passageways' lungs. exchanges gases between blood and external environment
lymphatic system
lymph, lymph vessels, lymphoid organs. returns tissue fluid to the blood; defends against disease
nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense receptors. coordinates body activities; receives and transmits stimuli
skeletal system
bones, cartilage, ligaments. provides body framework and support; protects; attaches muscles to bones; provides calcium storage
muscular system
muscles. produces movement; maintains posture; provides heat
reproductive system
testes; ovaries; accessory structures. reproduction (duh)
endocrine system
pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, other ductless glands. regulates metabolic activities and body chemistry
urinary system
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra. excretes metabolic wastes; regulates fluid balance and acid-base balance
10 basic processes of life
organization, metabolism, responsiveness, movement, and reproduction
organization
division of labor; each thing works together to keep the body healthy
metabolism
all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body. catabolism and anabolism
catabolism
complex substances are broken down into simpler ones and energy is released (digestion)
anabolism
complex substances are built up by simpler ones. requires energy
responsiveness
irritability (discomfort); detecting changes in the external or internal environment and reacting to that change
movement
cellular level: molecules move from one place to another. blood moves to different parts of the body
contractility
ability of muscles to create movement
conductivity
ability to transmit a stimulus or information from one point to another
reproduction
baby. formation of new cells to replace old ones and for growth (cellular reproduction)
growth
increase in size (either the cells get larger or multiply). anabolic processes must occur at a faster rate than catabolic for this to happen
differentiation
unspecialized cells change into specialized cells with distinctive structural and functional characteristics. through this cells develop into tissues and then into organs
respiration
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the cells and the external environment
digestion
breaking down complex foods into simple molecules to be absorbed into the blood and used by the body
excretion
removes waste products of digestion and metabolism
5 physical factors from the environment needed for life
water. 60% of us is water. provides a medium in which chemical reactions occur, transports substances, and helps to regulate temperature
oxygen
necessary for the metabolic actions that provide energy
nutrients
carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. come from the foods we eat. supply chemicals the body needs for energy and to make new tissues
heat
form of energy. necessary to keep the chemical reactions in the body proceeding at an appropriate rate. to a point, the more heat the faster the reaction.
pressure
breathing. hydrostatic pressure: force applied by fluids (blood pressure) essential for the circulation of blood.
visceral
internal organs
parietal
wall of a body cavity
pathology
study of disease
radiology
study of structure and function within the body using x rays
cytology
study of cellular structure
histology
study of tissues
pharmacology
how drugs affect the body
embryology
prenatal development
surgical anatomy
anatomical landmarks important during surgery
gross anatomy
macroscopic structure (basic anatomy)
surface anatomy
external features
systemic anatomy
body systems (structure)
regional anatomy
stuff within that region (head)
cellular physiology
individual cells and how they work