Medical neuro biology2

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What are 3 structure and one systems that one can find internal to the brain
1. Lymbic system
2. Thalmus
3. Basal ganglia
4. Fiber connection
What are four structure of the brain are part of the lymbic system
1. cingulate gryrus
2. Hypothalamus
3. Hippocampus
4. Amygdala
What is the function of the lymbic system
1. It is responsible for, emotion, arousal, the circadian rhythm , and the way we value things.
What is the function of the thalamus
1. this the relay station or where all sensory information that are sent to the brain pass through and converge so to be understand and sent to higher center of the brain.
2. it is also where sensory information come in from the body and converge to motor.
What is compose of the basil ganglia
PSsCG
1. Putamen
subthlamic nucleus
2. Substial nigra
3. Caudate Nucleus
4. Globus pallidus
What is the basil ganglia
1. This is a group of nuclei in the internal structure of the brain that work together in groups so that all of one plan movement is smooth
What is the function of the basil ganglia
1. The group of nuclei in the basil ganglia work as a group so that all of one plan movement is smooth
2. It also like things like rewards.
Why some part of the brain are called nucleus
1. Nucleus are given to part of the brain that have high density of nerons then other loactions
Where is the basil ganglia located
1. The telencephalon or the forebrain
What is the function of the putamen
1. Regulate movements or Motor learning
What is the function of the Substial nigra
1. It is responsible for making dopamine, it also play important role in movement, addiction, and parkinson
What part of the brain is cause parkinson due to it defect
1. Substial nigra
What is the function of the caudate nucleus
1. Input of the basal ganglia, which Inessential for memory and understanding social cues such as langauges
What dissease the basil gangilia play important role
1. Parkinson, OCD, tourettes, anxity disorder
What is the function of the glubus pallidu
1. Output of the basal ganglia, its Involve in the regulation of voluntary movement
What is the name of the cut of the brain that is consist of the a cut from the superior view of the brain to the inferior, head to neck
1. Corona Cut
What is the name of the cut of the brain tha is consist of a cut from the anterior view of the brain to the posterior horizontal, face to back
1. horizantal cut
What is the function of the lymbic system
1. Emotional, Endocrine, learning and memory , Stress, reproductive, stress respond, growth and thyroid
What are the four part of the brain the lymbic system compose of
1. cingulate gryrus
2. Hypothalamus
3. Hippocampus
4. Amygdala
what part of the brain control the neural endocrine system
1. Hypothalamus
What is the function of the cingulate gyrus which is part of the lymbic system
1.This have influence on how we regulate emotion or anger
What is the function of the amygdala
1. it process emotion such as fear and pleasure, anxiety. it also have to with learning, learning things that are important such as pleasure or pain.
Amygdala
what is the function of the hippocampus
1. short term memory(Adan) and also spatial memory or location mapping and it also function as a neuro endocrine control on the hypothalamus.
What part of the brain the hippacampus have a neurol endocrin control on
1. hypothalmus
What is the special structure that connect the hipopcampus and the septal nuclei to the hypothalamus
1. Fornix
where would one find the fornix
Where would one find the hipocampus
1. Posterior to the temporal lobe
what is the function of the hypothalmus
1. Control neuroendocrine, ciradian rhythms or body clock and emotional reflex(stress, agression, rage)
What emotional state does the hypothalamus mediate at a low level
1. Anger, agression
what is the limbic lobe
1. The antire composition of the lymbic sytem as one
2. #Orange
How does one see the limbic lobe
1. Splitting the brain into two down it middle
what is the corpus colusium
1. A very large white matter made of myelinated axon connect the right and left side of the brain
2. Genu, Body, and splenium
What are the 4 component that the CNS is deviled into
1. Forebrain
2. Brainstem
3. Spinal cord
4. Cerebellum
What are the two part the forebrain is devived into
1. Cerebral hemisphere
2. Diencephalon
What are the two part the diencephalon which is part of the forebrain is devived into
1. Thalamus
2. Hypo thalamus
What are the three parts of the brain stem
1. Pons
2. Midbrain
3. Medulla
What is the function of the thalamus
1. It basically relay station where many sensory information are sent to and process to be understand or make sense then it ship
2. This is the relay station for perceptual data before it passed on to the cerebral cortex. .
Why is the thalamus important
The brain receive a lot of information, yet not all are can be put into good use the thalamus is what is use to extract and the important information and making them more interpretable: The rosetta stone of the brain
What are the nuclei of the thalamus
1. This where specific sensory information are sent on specific location of the thalamus
What are the 8 Nuclei of the thalamus
1. Medial geniculate
2. Leteral geniculate
3.Ventral posterior leteral
4. Ventral posterior media
5. Ventral anterior
6. Ventral Leteral
7. Association nuclei
8. Nonspecific Nuclei
What is the function of the thalamus nuclei Medial geniculate and what happen to it if demage
1. It is the relay station for hearing
2. one would not be able to discern s or perceive sound
What is the function of the the thalamus nuclei Leteral geniculate and what happen to it if demage
1. It is the relay station for vision
2. one would lose their vision, yet the would be able to proce light but would not be able discern s or recal what it is
What is the function of the the thalamus nuclei Ventral posterior leteral and what happen to it if demage and where it connected to the motor regulate of the brain.
1. 1. It is the relay station for processing somatosenory information from the body
2. one would not be able to receive sensory information from the body like temperature, touch and proprioception
3. Globus pa
What is the function of the the thalamus nuclei Ventral posterior media and what happen to it if demage
1. It is the relay station for processing somatosenory information from the head
2. one would not be able to receive sensory information from the head like temperature, touch and proprioception
What is a very important function of the the thalamus nuclei Ventral posterior media nucleus that is needed for survival as far as eating and what happen to it if damage
1. Sense of taste
2. No taste
What is the function of the the thalamus nuclei Ventral anterior nucleus and what happen to it if demage and where it connected to the motor regulate of the brain.
1. It is a relay station for motor sensory signal that is coming from the basil ganglia globus p
What is the function of the the thalamus nuclei Ventral latera nucleus and what happen to it if demage and where it connected to the motor regulate of the brain.
1. It is a relay station for motor sensory signal that is coming from the basil ganglia globus p
What is the function of the the thalamus nuclei association nucleus and what happen to it if demage
1. ????
What is the function of the the thalamus nuclei nonspecific nucleus and what happen to it if demage
1. Receive sensory information for pain
Where would one would find the thalamus
1.Where the third ventricle is located, which is the center of the brain where fluid travel across and have axons going through from all area of the brain...Its kown as the heart beat of the brain
What is important of the various relay station of the thalamus
1. The relay stations are recalling what one see or hear.
What is the only sense where the thalamus is not a necessary relay station.
1. Olfactory or smell
Where does olfactory information pass through the thalamus even thought it is not necessary and what occur if lesion
1. The Dorsal media
2. One can retain the since of smell
What is the the basil ganglia
1.This is a group of nuclei in the internal structure of the brain that work together and deal with a motor control and and motor learning
What is compose of the basal ganglia
1. Caudate
2. Putamen
3. Gobus Pallidus
4. Substantia Nigra
5. Subthalamic nucleus
What is the function of the basil ganglia
1. It important in making sure that voluntary motor control run smoothly or intentional movement are smooth and addition it is learning as far as routine
2. Reinforcement or being praise or reward
How does information travel to the basal ganglia and what are the input and output
1. Information is sent to the caudate(input)
2. It is process and pass to the putamen
3. the infomation is process and sent to the globuspallidus(out put)
Where is the location and the function of the caudate
1. It a C shape nucleus located along the the lateral ventricle. It is the input of the basal ganglia or sensory information come in the basal gangl
Where is the caudate
1.#3
Where is the location and the function of the basal ganglia nuclei putamen
It is lateral to the caudate or one can say it is contentious with the caudate a the nucleus acumbens. It regulate movement
Where is putamen
1. #4
What disease the basal ganglia can cause if there is a lesion
1. Parkinson and huntington
What is the function of the basil ganglia
1. It help regulate motor function by receiving massage from the cerebral cortex
Where is the location and the function of the basal ganglia nuclei globus pallidus
1. it is inferior to the putanmen, It involve in regulation of voluntary movement. It is also the out of the basal ganglia
Where is the location and the function of the basal ganglia nuclei substantia nigra
1. It is near the cerebral aqueduct, It is responsible for producing dopamine, It play in important role in reward, addiction and movement
What disease does having a proble with one basal ganglia nuclei substantia nigra cause
parkinson
Where is the location and the function of the basal ganglia nuclei Subthalamic nucleus nuclei and if demage what occur
1. It reuglate intentional movement
2.This cause ballisium
What is ballisium
1. This a condition where the where the Subthalamic nucleus is demage and one cant control the speed or the force of their movement
What would happen to one that have a problem of how they basil ganglia process information or it motor output
1. They would have a lot of motor disturbance.
What is the largest fiber connecting fiber of the brain
1. corpus collusum
What is the function of the corpus collusum
1. It is a large bundle of nerve fiber that connect the left and right hemisperes, it also known as the major interconnection between the hemisphere
What are the three part of the corpus collosum
1. Genu
2. body
3. splenum
What occur when the corpus collosum is severed
1. The right side and the left side don't communicate split brain syndrome
What does commissure mean and as far as brain
1. A place where two things are join together, this is place where the left and right side of the brain are join
What is the function of the anterior commissure
1. This is use to connect the left and right frontal lobe
What is the primary information that the anterior commissure transmit between the frontal lobe
1.Olfactory
What is the function of the posterior commissure
1. It take infomartion between the diencephalon of the left and right brain.
What is the diencephalon compose of
1. Thalamus and hypothalamus
What is the function of the fornix
1. It connect the hippocampus and the septal nuclei to the hyopthalamus on a location on the hyopthalmus called mammilary body
What is the internal capsule
1. They are projection fiber or motor fiber that arise from the prencentral gyrus
what is the fiber tract coming from the precentral gyrus
1. Motor fiber coming from the precentral gyrus
2. Internal capsule
3. Pe uncle
4. cortical spinal tracts
How does the hipocampus connect to the hypothalmus on it mammilary body
1. Fornix
How does the hypothalamus on it mammilary body connect or communicate with the anterior aspect the thalamus
1. Mammilothalamic tract.
How does the basal ganglia output nuclei globus pallidus on it media location connect or communicate to the thalamus
1. Ansa lenticularis
2. Lenticular fascisuculus
What two part of the thalamus influence the basal ganglia
1. Ventral Lateral
2. Ventral anterior
What part of the thalamus is part of the limbic lobe
1. anterior or ventral anterior
what is the structure that separate the leteral ventricle
1. Septum pellucidum
Where would you find the acubem
1. fiber separate the caudate and the putamen
Where would you find caudate
1. Along the letteral ventriclee
What part of the brain is important for reinforment, pleasure, reward and adiction.
1. basal ganglia
What part of the brain is known to cause alzimer because it produce Acetocholine which is important for alzimer
1. Nucleus baslis of meynert
Where one find globus paldus
1. Underneath the putamen
Whatt is the function of the Ansa lenticularus
1. connct the medial globus paladus Ventral Anterior and Ventral lateral of the thalamus
What occur when one goes posterior of the temporal lobe in a cornal cut
1. One go from amygdalla to hippocampus
What is the function of the mamilothalamic trac
1. Its a nerve fiber coming from the mammilary body of the hypothlamus to the thalamus connecting them
Where would one find the hypothalamus
1. below the third ventricle
What are ceberal peduncle
1. This is the continue of the internal capsule
where, how the red nucleus look what is it function
1. It appear in the mid brain in a coronal cut and as a dish look. It is a secondary motor pathway important for fast movement
What is the name where the left and right side of the thalamus meet
1. Mass intermediate or interthalmic adhesion
What is is call when one cant make out the putamen from the globus paladus
1. Lentiform