Terms in this set (...)

interaction with the spanish created a caste system that put Spaniards/Mexicans on top, these under them, and Genizaros (indians without tribes) at bottom.
Plains indians
sometimes formed alliances with other tribes; divided tasks by gender; warriors were badass basically when white settlers tried to take their land but the tribes were unable to unite against white aggression.
Hispanic New mexico
Center of spanish speaking society- farming and trading communities. small aristocracy of great landowners and a large population of Spanish (mexican) peasants who worked on the great estates, farmed small plots of their own, or scraped out a subsistence. Many indians were enslaved or indentured. After the US got, many feared that the new American rulers would take away their lands and threaten their societies so the Taos Indians rebelled and killed the new governor and anglo-americans
Hispanic california and texas
Indians were targets of evangelizing efforts of missionaries and were a labor force for the self-sufficient economies the missionaries created. After the mission society collapsed, Mexican aristocracy emerged and for them, the arrival of Anglo-americans around the civil war was disastrous. Many people lost their lands and were excluded from the gold rush
Chinese immigrants
many settled in california in hopes of a better life. By 1880, more than 200,000 settled mostly in California and almost all came as free laborers. White people couldn't resist being racist and soon were jealous of the their success
every part was used- skin was used for clothing, utensils, tepees, blankets, and shoes; manure provided fuel; bones became knives and arrow tips; tendons formed strings of bows.
Building the railroad
as mining declines as a source of wealth and jobs for the Chinese, they found work building the railroad and formed 90% of the labor force of the Central Pacific. Chinese were preferred over whites since they didn't have experience of labor organization and accepted low wages.
Chinese exclusion act
banned Chinese immigration for ten years and barred chinese already in the country from becoming naturalized citizens.
homestead act
encouraged settlement and permitted settlers to buy plots of 160 acres for a small fee if they occupied the land for 5 years and improved it- gave a free farm to any american and was government relief
Mining in the west
news of a strike would usually begin with a stampede. Individual prospectors would exploit the first shallow deposits and then corporations would move in after the surface deposits dwindled and dig deeper and once those deposits dwindled, ranchers and farmers moved in and established a more permanent economy
Cattle industry in the SW
driving herds to different locations proved that they could be mobile and soon the Chisholm Trail (cowboys drove nearly 1.5 million to Kansas). Because it was said that an investment of $5,000 would return $45,000 in four years, ranching soon became corporate. Soon, however, there was overcrowding and not enough grass for the cattle but two severe winters and a searing summer in between them killed off hundreds of thousands of the cattle-industry died soon after
Cowboy culture
cowboys were romanticized- many thought the west was opposite of the stable and ordered world of the East. The "virginian" was a popular book that romanticized their freedom from social constraints, affinity with nature, and even their violence. Cowboys were often lonely, had low wages, and had few opportunities for advancement.
Romantic vision of the west
americans considered it the last frontier. Mark Twain wrote the West to be an escape from constraints of an organized society and the west was seen as the last refuge from the constraints of civilization
Frederick Jackson Turner
"the significance of the frontier in american history"-argued the end of the frontier also marked the end of one of the most important democratizing forces in american life. expressed a growing sense that much of the best farming and grazing land was now taken and in the future it would be more difficult to acquire valuable land for little or nothing
Concentration policy
whites wanted more access to indian land so a new reservation policy was put into place to get the natives off the desired land and give each tribe an assigned "concentration" confirmed by separate treaties. Ended up dividing tribe and made them easier to control, allowing the gov't to force tribes into scattered land and take over their old land
Bureau of Indian Affairs
branch of the Department of the Interior responsible for distributing land, making payments, and supervising the shipment of supplies. Lots of dishonesty and incompetence. condoned the killing of buffalo- a huge way of life and main way for survival for natives
little bighorn
tribal warriors surprised Colonel Custer and 264 members of his regiment, surrounded them, and killed every man. Chiefs had gathered as many as 2,500 warriors, one of the largest Indian armies ever assembled at a time. However, the natives did not have the political organization or supplies to keep their troops united and they slowly went and some were forced back onto reservations
Chief Joseph
the Nez Percé were a small and peaceful tribe that managed to live unbothered in Oregon without ever signing a treaty, but were under pressure to move into a reservation. Chief Joseph urged his followers to flee from the American troops during the move to the reservation. they were finally caught just short of the Canadian border (some made it past)
wounded knee
part of native resistance to white encroachment, can't stand against the white men any more- give up
the dawes act
was an effort to assimilate. provided 160 acres to the head of a family, adult owners were given US citizenship but could not gain full title to their property for 25 years. applied to western tribes
indian children were taken away from their families and sent to boarding schools run by whites- taught to abandon tribal ways (children ended up not fitting in with family or society). encouraged the spread of christianity
Transition from substance farming to commercial
many could not afford to keep up their farms since crop prices were falling while production was becoming more expensive so bigger farms pushed small farmers off their land
Reasons for industrial growth
between 1865 and 1900 agriculture became and international business. cash crops sold in national and world markets.
technological innovations promoting industrial expansion
telephone, telegraph, steam navigation, and railroad all created new markets around the world for agricultural goods. New steel production techniques made it possible to mass produce steel for the use in the manufacture of locomotives, steel rails, and girders for tall buildings. Petroleum industry grew since the steel industry needed lubrication for its machinery
Taylorism and scientific market
taylorism had employers reorganize the production process by subdividing tasks to speed up production and make more workers interchangeable and diminish a manager's dependence on any particular employee.
standard oil was created through both vertical and horizontal integration. bought out competing refineries to eliminate competition
dominated the steel industry. cut costs and prices by striking deals with railroads and then bought out rivals who could not compete with him. controlled the processing of his steel from mine to market. sold out in 1901 for $450 million to banker J. P. Morgan who merged with others to create the giant US Steel Corporation
The railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. consolidated several large railroad companies under his control
pioneered the "trust"
Horizontal integration
buy up all similar companies
Vertical integration
buy up companies to make a product from start to finish
a term for any great economic combination. under, stockholders in individual corporations transferred their stocks to a small group of trustees in exchange for shares in the trust itself. Owners often had no direct control over the decisions made by the trustees.
Social Darwinism
says that in human society only the fittest individuals survived and flourished in the marketplace
Gospel of wealth
people of great wealth had a duty to use their riches to advance social progress. Carnegie wrote that the wealthy should consider all revenues in excess of their own needs as "trust funds" to be used for the goods of the community
Horatio Alger
wrote stories about boys that were rags to riches- american dream
Working conditions women and children
paid lower wages than adult males. married women weren't allowed really to work. desperate poverty created by lower wages led to prostitution for a lot of women. child-labor laws were passed but had limited impact
working conditions immigrants
in the 19th century, immigration came from northern Europe but during 20th c more came eastern europe. difficult adjustment to the nature of modern industrial labor- routine, repetitive tasks, strict monotonous schedules. loss of control over labor conditions
Efforts to organize labor
the National Labor Union started but soon died after the panic of 1873. Goals: Increase wages and 8-hour work day, monetary reform, and worker cooperatives.
Railroad strike of 1877
a 10% wage cut set many workers on strike, disrupting rail service from Baltimore to St. louis. federal troops well called out to suppress the disorder in west virginia. More than 100 died. was the first major, national labor conflict and illustrated how disputes between workers and employers couldn't be localized in the national economy
Samuel gompers
leader of the AFL (American Federation of Labor- became the most important and enduring labor group). said that women should stay at home
Haymarket Square
A public meeting in Chicago calling for a strike to achieve an 8-hour work day. Police attempted to break up the meeting, but a bomb was thrown killing 7 police. Americans began to believe the union movement was radical and violent
Homestead strike
One of the most violent strikes in U.S. history; against the _______ Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions
Henry Clay Frick
plant manager for Carnegie that held the strike- hated unions and made people that replaced the strikers start fights to tarnish union images
Pullman strike
This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shutdown of western railroads, which took place against the Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions. Transportation was paralyzed
Eugene v. debs
pullman strike, helped to organize American Railway Union
urbanization and immigration patterns
a majority of the us lived in cities and urban areas. without immigration, cities would have grown slowly. the city attracted people from the countryside because it offered conveniences, entertainments, and cultural experiences unavailable in rural areas. Offered women the ability to act in ways smaller communities would not have allowed. more than just northern europeans immigrating- now eastern and southern europeans were immigrating. lots of nativism tho
new economic problems associated with urbanization
overcrowding, tenement building weren't safe and didn't have fire-escapes, disease, crime, alcoholism, pollution, fires
Jacob Riis
How the Other Half Lives- wrote about the reality of tenement life
Boss rule
main goal was to win votes for his organization. many won the loyalties of immigrants and immigrant communities. a boss might provide relief for some and even save those arrested for petty crimes from jail. was an alternative to the inadequacy of the regular gov't
Tammany Hall
many politicians enriched themselves and their allies through grafts and corruption. A politician might discover in advance where a new road was to be built, buy an interest in the land near it, and profit when the city had to buy the land from him or when property value rose as a result of the construction. While they were corrupt, they did modernize city infrastructure, expand the role of gov't, and created stability in a political and social climate that lacked a center
William M Tweed
super corrupt and ended up in jail for it
Changes in leisure and entertainment
growth of consumption (chain stores and department stores) lead to an increasing interest in leisure. more workers and the middle class were getting time off thus more time for leisure. Pain economy to a pleasure economy. Many went out for entertainment at parks, vaudville shows, dance halls, and concerts. Many forms of leisure were divided up by gender and/or ethnic background
Mass culture opportunities
theater was a way for ethnic communities to come together and celebrate the culture of their homeland. Vaudeville was very popular and was one of the few entertainment medias to allow black performers
Trends in literature and art
literary movement toward social realism and writing about poverty and injustice. art started to portray the social realities as well, showing slums and violence
Yellow journalism
sensational news- just to sell more papers
Upton Sinclair
wrote The Jungle which exposed the conditions of meatpacking workers and the horror and disgustingness behind it. led to legislative action
Darwinism and intellectual development
the theory of human evolution challenged the bible and suggested that history was not the working out of a divine plan but was a random process dominated by the fiercest or luckiest competitors. Pragmatism- modern society should rely on scientific inquiry for guidance instead of ideals and moral principles
Education opportunties
spread of free public primary and secondary education. rural areas lagged far behind urban-industrial one in funding public education. While black women couldn't get education, there were more opportunities for women to get education.