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Clin Med Quizzes: Brain Injury, CV/AVM, stroke part 1 & 2
Terms in this set (52)
The most common ages at which brain injuries are sustained are (select one response):
0-4 years old, 15-19 years old
Males are 1.5 times more likely than females to sustain a brain injury
Which ethnic group is most likely to die as a result of brain injury? (select on response):
A contrecoup injury is damage that occurs on the same side of the brain where the trauma occured.
A traumatic brain injury in which an object pieces the skull and dura is a: (select on response)
Penetrating brain injury
A ___________________________ is a surgical procedure performed to evacuate a hematoma that has formed in the skull as a result of bleeding.
The type of brain injury typically occurs as a result of rapid deceleration in a motor vehicle accident or as a result of Shaken Baby Syndrome is (select one response):
diffuse axonal injury
People who sustain a concussion do not have residual effects from the injury.
The Glascow Coma Scale is a useful predictor of rehabilitation outcomes.
A person who presents with no eye-opening, no reaction to external stimuli, and no purposeful movement is in the state of __________________________________.
A person who exhibits cycles of wakefulness and sleep, inconsistently follows simple instructions and responds to things in the environment or people is in _____________________________________.
minimally conscious state
A person who may react to loud noises with a startle, occasionally open his or her eyes, but exhibits no forms or purposeful communication or movement is considered to be in _________________________
Chiari malformations (CMs) occur when the portion of the skull that contains the [x1] is deformed.
Symptoms of CMs may not appear until adolescence or adulthood.
________________________ are a classic symptom of CMs.
Other symptoms of CMs may include (check all that apply):
- impairment in balance
-numbness in hand or feet
- impaired coordination
Arnold-Chiari malfromations, or type II CMs, may result in myelomeningocele, which is a form of ____________________.
People with CM may also develop a condition called [x1] in which a cavity, or cyrinx, forms in the spinal column.
Decompression surgery usually eliminates all symptoms of the CM.
People with cerebrovascular malformations often do not know the malformation exists until an acute medical event occurs.
Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are the least serious type of all of the cerebrovascular malformations.
When an AVM rupture occurs, the result is a ____________________________ stroke.
_________Prior to a hemorrhage, symptoms of an AVM may include___________
All AVMs require surgical intervention.
Which artery supplies which area of the brain?
The ____________________ is the artery most often occluded in a stroke.
If a person exhibits right hemiplegia, aphasia, and diminished right/left discrimination, you would suspect that the person sustained a stroke in the ___________________.
Left internal carotid Artery
If a person presents with left hemiplegia with greater upper extremity involvement as well as left unilateral inattention, you would suspect that the person's stroke occured in the _____________________________.
Right middle cerebral Artery
If a person presents with ataxia and significant impairments in coordination and balance, you would suspect the person's stroke occurred in the __________________.
Posterior cerebral Artery
If a person presents with left hemiplegia and significant cognitive impairments including impulsivity, decreased problem solving, and judgment, you would suspect the person's stroke occurred in the ___________________.
Right anterior cerebral Artery
inability to produce intelligible or meaningful langauge
speech will consist of mutliple word substitutions or jargon
impairment in comprehending or expressing language
person is often aware of own communication difficulties
impaired ability to comprehend language
Left unilateral neglect
visual perceptual deficits
Ischemic strokes (select all that are correct):
- account for approximately 80% of all strokes
-occur as the result of a blockage in a cerebral artery
By definition, symptoms resulting from a transient ischemic attack, or TIA, resolves within 72 hours.
All of the following are symptoms of a stroke except (select one resposne):
To confirm the presence, location, type, and location of a stroke, a person will typically be assessed with a imaging test such as a _________or upon presenting to an emergency _________
- CT scan
Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, or tPA (select all that are correct):
- is used in acute stroke management
- is used for people with hemorrhagic stroke
needs to be administered within 3 hours of the onset of sypmtoms
Many of the medications a person is prescribed following a stroke, such as betablockers, diuretics, or antiplatelets, are aimed at controlling_________ in order to minimize the risk of another stroke.
Smoking, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol, and a poor diet are examples of non-modifiable risk factors.
There are no significant differences in the incidence of stroke between ethnic groups.
Strokes are more common in women than in men.
Strokes are more common in people of lower socioeconomic status.
Surgical procedures intended to reduce the risk or stroke by opening the carotid artery include: (select all that apply)
- carotid stent
- carotid endarterectomy
A person who has had a TIA is 10 times more likely to have a stroke compared to someone with the same risk factors who has not had a TIA.
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