30 terms

Meteorology Chapter 1

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Terms in this set (...)

Meteorology
Study of the atmosphere
Weather
State of the atmosphere at any given time and place
Climate
"Average weather" based on observation and measurement. Qualitative and quantitative
Ways to express weather and climate
Air pressure
Air temperature
Air humidity
Type and amount of precipitation
Air pressure
14 pounds of pressure per square inch
Atmospheric elements (list 3)
Lightning
Thunderstorms
Hurricanes
Cold waves
Tornadoes
Blizzards
Heat waves
Fog
Hypothesis
An explanation of facts that can be tested
Theory
Multiple hypotheses that have passed many tests, and are supported by data
The peer review process is __________ and __________
Anonymous and independent
Earth's spheres
Geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere
Geosphere
Consisting of solid earth (no living things). Extends from earth's surface to its core (4,000 miles)
Atmosphere
Protects earth from radiation. 99% of it is within
18-20 miles of earth's surface. Weather occurs here
Hydrosphere
Oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, glaciers, underground water. Oceans make up 71% of the earth's surface
Biosphere
Includes all life on earth
System
A group of interacting or interconnecting parts that form a complex whole
Open system
More complicated; allows for transfer of matter (water cycle)
Closed system
Self contained system; no transfer of matter (sphere on desk)
Positive feedback mechanism
Mechanism that enhances or drives change (evolution, climate change)
Negative feedback mechanism
Mechanism that maintains the system's status quo (sweating)
Major components of the atmosphere
Hydrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%)
Montreal Protocol
UN treaty in 1987, ratified by 190 nations, created legal controls on production and consumption of ozone depleting chemicals
Atmospheric layers
Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thremosphere
Troposphere
Temperature decreases with altitude.
Temperature levels off at an altitude between 5-7 miles.
Temperature decreases in the troposphere called the environmental lapse rate.
Stratosphere
Temperature increases with altitude until reaching the stratopause (30 miles).
The ozone layer is concentrated in the stratosphere.
Mesosphere
Temperature decreases with altitude until reaching the mesopause (50 miles).
Reaches -130℉.
The coldest temperatures in the atmosphere occur in the mesopause .
Thermosphere
The thermosphere has no well defined upper limit.
Temperature increases to 1800℉.
Environmental lapse rate
3.6℉ per 1000 ft
Auroras
Occurs when earth's magnetic field traps solar particles
Aurora Borealis
Occurs in the Northern hemosphere
Aurora Australis
Occurs in the Southern hemoshpere