21 terms

Chapter 7- Friedland

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Demography
the study of human population and population trends
Immigration
the number of people that move into the country
Emmigration
the number of people that move out of the country
Net Migration Rate
the difference between immigration and emigration in a given year per 1,000 people
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
the number of births per 1,000 individuals per year
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year
Global Population Growth Rate
[CBR - CDR] / 10
(expressed as percentage)
National Population Growth Rate
[(CBR + immigration) - (CDR + emigration)] / 10 (expressed as percentage)
Doubling Time
The number of years it takes the population to double assuming the growth rate is constant. This number does not depend on the size of the population
70 / r
r is a percentage but use whole number (use 2 for 2%)
Theory of Demographic Transition
says that as a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluence, it undergoes a predictable shift in population growth
Phase 1 (of Transition)
- country experiences slow or no growth
- birth rate = death rate
- life expectancy is short due to working conditions
-parents count on many children to care for them when they are old
Phase 2 (of transition)
- country experiences rapid growth
-better sanitation, increased access to food and clean drinking water
-infant mortality rate declines, but birth rate doesn't
Phase 3 (of transition)
-country experiences population stabilization
- economy and education system improve
-family income increases and people have fewer children
Phase 4 (of transition)
-country's population declines
-fewer younger people leads to demographic shift- fewer people in work force
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
an estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years.
Replacement Level Fertility (RLF)
the TFR required to offset the average number of deaths in a population so that it remains stable. Typically the _______ is just over 2 children.
Life Expectancy
the average number of years that an individual in a particular year in a particular country can be expected to live
-generally higher in countries with better healthcare, high resource consumption
Infant Mortality
the number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births
Child Mortality
the number of deaths of children under 5 per 1,000 live births
Family Planning
the regulation of the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control
- when women have access to this birth rates drop
Impacts on TFR
Education
-more education typically = fewer children
Women in the workforce
-women working = fewer children
Family Planning (including contraceptives)
-contraceptives = less children
Income
-less income = more kids to help out
Cultural/Religous values
-large families
-abortion-abstinence
Health Care/Mortality Rate
-Better health care=less kids because they survive.
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