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76 terms

A&P Flashcards

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chemical reaction
chemical bonds formed between atoms, or exisitng bonds betwen atoms are broken
reactants
atoms in the reacting substances on the lef side of the arrow in a chemical formula
products
rearranged atoms of the reactant to form different substances; on the right side of the arrow of a chemical formula
metabolism
The sum of all biochemical processes under way within the human body at any moment; includes anabolim and catabolism
work
using a force to move an object; change in physical structure of matte
energy
ability to do work
kinetic energy
energy of motion; energy that is doing work
potential energy
stored energy; has the potential to do work - either by position or chemical structure
decomposition reaction
breaks a molecule into smaller fragments; AB -> A + B; water molecule broken into hydrogen and oxygen
hydrolysis
"water dissolving" one of the bonds is broken in a complex molecule, and the components of a water molecule (H and OH) are added to the resulting products ex: A-B- C-D + H2O --> A-B-C -H + HO - D
catabolism
"throwing down" decomposition reactions of complex molecules within the body's cells and tisues; a form of potential energy(covalent bond) is broken and kinetic energy is released that can preform work; cells perform vital functions such as growth, movement and reproduction
synthesis
opposite of decomposition; A + B --> AB; assembles smaller molecules into larger molecules
dehydration synthesis
(condensation) formation of a complex molecule by removing water; ex: A-B-C-H + HO -D ---> A-B-C-D- + H2O
anabolism
"throwing upward" takes energy to create a chemical bond; synthesis of new molecules within the body's cells; anabolism must be suported by catabolic energy to balance cellular function
exchange reaction
parts of reacting molecules are "shuffled around" to produce new products; AB + CD ---> AD + CB
reversible reactions
chemical reactions are reversible; A + B <-----> AB
activation energy
the amount of energy required to start a reaction
enzymes
promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements; enzymes belong to a class of substances called "catalysts"; all enzymes are proteins; different enzymes are required for different chemical reactions to occur; ex: A+B <-------> (enzyme is represented by arrow) AB
exergonic
reactions that release energy; the amount of energy released is greater than the activation energy needed to start the reaction; relatively common in the body; responsible for maintaining body temperature by providing the necessary heat
endergonic
more energy needed to start the reaction than is released as it proceeds the reaction as a whole will absorb energy
nutrients
essential elements and molecules normally obtained through diet
metabolites
large group including all the molecules ( nutrients included) that can be brodken down (synthesized) by chemical reactions inside the human body
inorgnic compounds
generally do not contain hydrogen or carbon atoms; carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, inorganic acids, bases and salts
organic compounds
formed by carbon and hydrogen atoms; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
solution
uniformed mixture of two or more substances
solvent
medium in which other atoms, ions, and/or molecules disperse; water is the universal solvent
solute
the dispersing substance in the solvent; ex: salt (solute) dissolves in water (solvent)
electrolytes
soluble inorgnic molecules whose ions will conduct an electical current in solution; ex: sodium chloride in blood and other body fluids
hydrophilic
"loving water" substances that readily interact with water; ex: glucose
hydrophobic
"fear of water" substances that do not readily react with water; ex: oil
colloid
solution containing dispersed proteins or other large molecules; ex: jell-o
suspension
contains larger moelcules than a colloid; if left undistruded with settle; ex: sand and water
pH
concentration of hydrogen (H+) ions in fluids H+ ions are extremely reactive in solution; change shape of complex molecules; in human body can disrupt cell and tissue function- body fluids must be regulated precisely
pH of a solution
negative logarithm of H+ ion concentration in moles per liter; ex: pH of 6 ([H+] = 1 x 10 -6 or 0.0000001) concentration of H+ ions is 10times as great as it is at a pH of 7
acidic
a pH below 7 is acidic; contains more H+ ions than hydroxide ions (OH-)
basic
pH above 7 is basic (alkaline); more OH- ions than H+ ions
salts
ionic compound consisting of any cation except a H+ ion and any anion except OH-; dissolve completely in water ex: sodium chloride NaCl; Na+ and Cl- in solution
buffers
stabilize the pH of a solution by removing or replacing H+ ions
cabohydrate
organic molecule; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1; C6H12O6 (hexose -carbohydrate -fuel); less than 3% of total body weight
monosaccharides
simple sugar; contains 3 to 7 atoms; trios (3-carbon), tetrose (4-carbon) pentose (5-carbon), hexose (6-carbon), or heptose (7-carbon)
isomer
the same types and numbers of atoms, but different structures
disaccahride
two monosaccharides joined together; sucrose - dehydration synthesis; breakdown ex of hydrolysis
polysaccharides
large molecules form by repeated dehydration synthesis reactions; complex carbohydrates; ex: cellulose, starches formed from glucose molecules (monosaccharide)
glycogen
animal starch; does not dissolve in water or body fluids; made and stored by muscle cells
lipids
fat; carbon, hydrogen and water; 1:2 ratio contain less oxygen than carbohydrates with the same number of carbon atoms; ex: C12H24O2; contain small traces of phorsphorus, nitrogen, or sulfur; fats, oils, and waxes- insuluable in water - body uses transport mechanisms - 12-18% of body weight;
fatty acids
long chains carbon chains with hydrogen atoms attached. carboxylic acid group; the carboxyl end accociates with water molecules-hydrophilic portion; hydrocarbon tail is hydrophobic
eicosaniods
lipids derived from arachidonic acid - must be absorbed in the diet; cannot be synthesized by the body
prostaglandons
short chained fatty acids- 5 carbon atoms or joined in a ring; released in cells to coordinate/direct local cellular activities; extremely powerful
glycerides
formed by the attachment to glycerol; dehydration synthesis produces monoglyceride(glycerol plus one fatty acid) diglyceride (glycerol + two fatty acids), triglyceride (gylcerol + three fatty acids)
steroids
large lipid molecules; cholesterol found in all animal membranes - use to maintain membrane, growth and division; regulation of sexual funcion(setrogens/testoserone); tissue metabolism/mineral balance (corticosteroids/calcitriol); bile salts ( normal processing of dietary fats
phospholipids/glycolipids
related structurally;cells snthesize both types of lipids; help to form and maintain intracellular structures called membranes
proteins
abundant organic components of the human body; contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; perform a variety of essential functions - support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination, defense
amino acids
20 different amino acids - typical protein contains 1000 amino acids, large contain 100,000; long chains of organic molecules; 5 components: central carbon atom, hydrogen atom, amino group, carboxylic acid group, a variable group (R group/side chain)
peptide bond
dehydration synthesis linking amino acids; creates a covalent bond between carboxylic acid groupd and one amino acid and teh amino acid of another;
peptide
molecules held together by peptide bonds (dipeptide- 2 amino acids)
polypeptide
a chain of amino acids (tripeptides and larger) - polypeptides containing 100 or more minio acids are called proteins
primary structure
sequence of amino acids along the length of a single polypeptide
secondary structure
result of hydrogen bonding along the length of the polypeptide chain; produces a spiral - known as pleated sheet
tertiary structure
coiling and foldiing of a polypeptide
quaternary structure
separate polypeptide subunits interact to form a larger molecule
fibrous proteins
tough, durable, and usually insoluble in water
globular proteins
compact, rounded, readily enter aqueous solution; function only if they remain in solution
substrate
reactants in enzymatic reactions
active site
groove/pocket; substrate bonds to this special region of the enzyme
specificity
each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction
saturated
an enzyme that has reached its saturation limit
cofactor
ion or molecule that must bind to the enzyme before substrates can also bind; without cofactor enzyme is intact but nonfuctional
coenzymes
nonprotein ormganic molecules that function as cofactors
glycoproteins/proteoglycans
large proteins (glycoproteins) function as enzymes, antibodies, hormones, or proteins - provides lubriication -secrets mucins form mucus lines respiratory/digestive tract; proteoglycans large polysaccharide molecules; tissue fluids - syrupy consistency
nucleic acids
large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus; store and process info at the molecular level inside cells; two classes: DNA, RNA
DNA
deoxyribronucleic acid; determines inherited characteristics - structure and function
RNA
ribonucleic acid; manufacture specific forms of proteins using DNA as a template; three forms: rRNA, mRNA, tRNA
nucleotides
subunit containing three components: pentose (5-carbon sugar) either ribose RNA or deoxyribose DNA, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base (adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine(G), thymine (T) found in paris in DNA (A-T, G-C) and uracel (U) in RNA paris with A (A-U)
High -energy bonds
stored in cells as high-energy compounds ATP (andenosine triphosphate)
ADP
adenosine diphosphate - ATP s made by cells when a phosphate group is bonded ADP
Phosphorylation
the process of adding a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP; cells use the energy released by ATP to power essential activities