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The Chemistry of New Substances
Terms in this set (15)
A process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances into a new set of substances OR The process when atoms of a particle rearrange to produce different particles.
A substance that is consumed in the course of a chemical reaction.
A substance that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction.
A reaction that occurs at room temperature and does not require any energy to get it started.
Law of conservation of mass
Total mass of reactants = total mass of the products.
Any reaction in which a more complex chemical compound is broken down into simpler chemicals (elements and/or compounds). AB--> A + B
Examples of decomposition reactions.
Copper extracted from chalcopyrite; Aluminium extracted from bauxite; Iron extracted from haematite.
Any reaction in which two or more simpler chemicals (elements or compounds) react to form a more complex chemical compound A + B-->AB
Examples of synthesis reactions
(1) Corrosion: metal + oxygen-->metal oxide; iron + oxygen-->iron oxide (rust)
Single displacement (substitution) reactions
A reaction in which one element takes the place of another element in a compound. A + BC-->B + AC
Example of a single displacement reaction
Thermite: Aluminium + iron oxide-->Aluminium oxide + iron
Double displacement (substitution) reactions
A reaction in which two compounds react to form two new compounds.AB + CD-->AD + CB
Example of a double displacement reaction
Precipitation reaction: A specific type of double displacement reaction in which soluble substances react to produce an insoluble product. (lead iodide) lead nitrate(aq) + potassium iodide (aq) -->lead iodide (s) + potassium nitrate (aq)
A large molecule made up of repeating units (monomers)
Examples of polymers
Water bottle, plastic bags, PVC pipe, nylon, cellulose, starch
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