The purposeful utilization or enhancement of leisure as a way to maximize a person's overall health, well-being, or quality of life.
recreation therapy/recreational therapy/TR
The purposeful use of leisure-based interventions to improve functional abilities.
Approach that focuses first on capabilities when working with a client.
therapeutic recreation process
The overall process of assessing, planning, implementing, and evaluating therapeutic recreation programs.
Humanitarian treatment movement
Social movement in Europe in the late 1700s that removed patients with mental illnesses from dungeons and allowed them to move freely on hospital grounds outside mainstream communities.
medicalization of spas and thermal baths
The use of medical authority to justify leisure experiences during a time when leisure was not justified
early medical nurse who highlighted the therapeutic effects of recreation while working in British hospitals during the Crimean War
Created by Florence Nightingale. A small wooden hut that was located at the center of the hospital complex. had a recreation room and a coffeehouse. The cafe provided a safe place where soldiers could escape their problems and find friendship.
A settlement house in a poor district of Chicago that proveded human services and engaged in social action on behalf of people with special needs, which was established by Jane addams, Ellen Gates Starr, and Mary Keyser.
The employment of visual arts, music, dance, or drama techniques with the intent to produce and achieve a final product.
Uses reading materials such as novels, plays, short stories, booklets, and pamphlets to help clients become aware that other people have similar problems, become aware of new insights, and structure their lives.
A community leisure education program developed at Hull-House that provided a developmental process in which groups of people increased their understanding of leisure and the relationship among leisure, lifestyle, culture, and society.
Leisure Orientation to therapeutic recreation
Belief that the distinctness of therapeutic recreation is its clear association with programming recreation and leisure services. As such, leisure is an end unto itself, which creates freedom and choice among people with special needs.
Therapy Orientation of Therapeutic recreation
Belief that the essence of therapeutic recreation is to use or prescribe recreation and leisure for medical purposes. As such, recreation and leisure is a means to an end.
National Association of Recreation Therapists (NART)
Created in 1953 so that the therapy orientation to therapeutic recreation would have even greater distance from the recreation and physical education curriculum of AAHPER and to bring greater importance to clinical outcomes and the role of recreation in bringing functional improvements in clients. NART eventually merged with three other professional organizations to develop the National Therapeutic Recreation Society, a branch of the National Recreation and Park association, in 1966.
The National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA)
Made up of 5 recreation and leisure professional organizations that merged in 1966. Today NRPA is a parks and recreation professional organization with a mission to advance parks, recreation, leisure, and environmental conservation.
Utopian years of therapeutic recreation
A social movement that began in the early 1960s to unite all leisure-oriented professionals and therapeutic recreation organizations together into one loosely structured organization.
A theoretical framework developed by the scandinavian academic Bengt Nirje to help people with disabilities become included in mainstream society. Makes available to persons with disabilities patterns of life and conditions of everyday living that are as close as posible or indeed the same as the regular circumstances
National Therapeutic recreation society (NTRS)
A branch of the NRPA created in 1966 to enhance the competencies of therapeutic recreatiojn specialists. Four therapeutic recreation recreation professional organizations merged to form NTRS.
Reaction opportunities designed so that people with disabilities can experience leisure in mainstream society. Three venues of inclusive reaction are community reintegration programs, community integration programs, and community development programs.
National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification (NCTRC)
An independent credentialing agency created in 1981 that oversees the national certification program in therapeutic recreation in the United States.
Members of the NTRS in the early 1980s who separated themselves from NTRS and NRPA so that they could follow a therapy orientation to therapeutic recreation. This group eventually created the American Therapeutic Recreation Associaiton.
American Therapeutic Recreation Associaiton (ATRA)
Created in 1984. A therapeutic recreation professional organization that separated from NTRS and NRPA, which emphasizes that therapeutic recreation is treatment for therapeutic change. Further, ATRA separates its therapeutic recreation historical roots and alignment to parks and recreation and its distinct association with leisure.
Alliance for Therapeutic Recreatioin
Board members of both ATRA and NTRS who meet to communicate and work in partnership on certain issues.
Laws help to protect groups of people. Laws help people with disabilities access society. Legislation for people with disabilities began in the 1970s
why legislation does not always work
-Certain things cannot be legislated, like attitudes -Laws mandate a building be accessible, but once inside laws do not mandate someone with a disability is treated fairly. -Legislation is weakened by compromises. -When legislation is reauthorized it becomes weaker than the original law.
Vocational Rehabilitation act
1952, rehabilitate veterans with disabilities. Reauthorized in 1963 and added recreation for ill and handicaped. served as the foundation for therapeutic recreation academic programs in the 1960s and 70s. Colleges received grants to develop recreation programs for disabled veterans.
Rehabilitation acts of 1973 and 1974
Former vocational rehab act. added sections that affected recreation. architectural and transportation barriers. training and demonstration projects. white house conference on handicapped individuals in 1977. Jimmy carter.
Rehab act of 1978
added recreation as a service in rehab facilities.
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