84 terms

Colonization - Constitution Unit Test

different types of charters
joint-stock (Virginia), royal (Massachusetts), proprietary (Pennsylvania)
1st successful colony
export more than you import; the British send all raw materials back to Britain to benefit Britain, not the colonies
triangle trade
trade between Britain, Africa and their colonies
New England colonies
Puritan dominated; education is stressed; theocracy - stricter laws; hub of trade - seafaring people
Southern colonies
dominated by agriculture; production of cash crops - tobacco; few large cities; smaller population
Middle colonies
trade & business; agriculture; blended cultures; Quakers
very strict in practice of faith and community lifestyles; responsible for the Witch Trials; poor relations with natives; forced conversion; education highly stressed; religious leaders held all roles in society - teachers, government, law, etc.; City Upon a Hill
Holy Experiment - vision of what life should be; William Penn; Pennsylvania; religious tolerant; good relations with natives; informal religion
Pequot War & King Phillip's War
Example of Puritan/English expansion in New England; example of native resistance
King Phillip
aka Metacom
Salem Witch Trials
overreaction to Puritan theocracy
Bacon's Rebellion
unequal distribution of land/wealth/power; land owners hold the power to make laws, vote, etc.
John Rolfe first cultivated and harvested; becomes the cash crop of Jamestown leading to its success
Mayflower Compact
A legal contract in which Puritans agreed to have fair laws to protect the general good; example of majority rule
French and Indian War
between British and French for the control of N. America
Treaty of Paris 1763
ended French and Indian War; French lost all N. American territory to Britain
George Washington
was Lt. Colonel for the British militia during French and Indian War beginning at Battle of Ft. Duquesne; VA representative in Continental Congress; chosen as 1st General of Am Colonial Army; 1st President of US
Albany Plan of Union
join or die snake; plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin to unify the colonies for common defense
Proclamation of 1763
King George III bans settlement past the Appalachian Mountains
Pontiac's Rebellion
native resistance to British expansion after the French and Indian War
Grenville Acts
Sugar Act - meant to discourage smuggling by decreasing the sugar tax
Townshend Acts
Included taxes on Stamp, Glass, Led & Tea - all will be repealed except tea
Intolerable Acts
British reaction to the Boston Tea Party - Boston harbor closed until all destroyed tea is paid for, Gen. Gage new governor of Boston which means Marshall law, quartering act in private homes
Boston Tea Party
Sons of Liberty went aboard three British ships and dumped the tea in the Boston Harbor in protest
1st Continental Congress
formed militias and arsenals; issued Olive Branch Petition; created an army; named General Washington
2nd Continental Congress
financed the war; Declaration of Independence
Olive Branch Petition
effort to make peace with England; King George ignored it
Stamp Act
tax on all legal documents; colonies reacted by violently protesting
Stamp Act Congress
1st sign of unification of the colonies over an issue (Stamp Act)
Sons of Liberty
political action/protest group; violence if needed
salutary neglect
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
Declaration of Independence
John Locke's political theories; Thomas Jefferson gets the credit for writing it; listed charges against the king and declare independence for Britain
Thomas Paine
political philosopher who wrote Common Sense which explained the reason why America should be free and independent
Concord and Lexington
British are trying to seize arsenals - starts American Revolution
chief of 30 tribes; father of Pocahontas; initially enemy of settlers
Samuel de Champlain
Allied himself with and traded with Natives in NE,
explored and traveled great lakes region. French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
John Smith
Soldier of fortune; placed in charge of Jamestown in order for it to survive; no work, not food policy
Lord Baltimore
founder of Maryland which becomes a refuge for Catholics
James Ogelthorpe
founder of GA; laid out Savannah in European style blocks; GA founded a penal colony (debtors colony)
John Winthrop
Gov of Mass; Puritan minister; "City Upon a Hill"
William Penn
Quaker; founder of Pennsylvania (Penn's Woods); Proprietor; "The Great Experiment" or "Holy Experiment"
Phyllis Wheatley
1st Af-Am published writer in American Colonies
Benjamin Franklin
inventor; writer; publisher; scientist; ambassador; 1st Post Master General; founding father; Albany Plan of Union
Bunker Hill
June 17, 1775; 1st official battle of the war
Patriots hold off the British for 3 assaults and have to w/draw on the 4th. Moral victory for Patriots but British are able to break out of Boston. British Victory
December 26, 1776. Washington's famous crossing of the Delaware River. Surprise attack into New Jersey. Captures up to 1,000 Hessians. 0 American Casualties. American Victory.
January 3, 1777. Victory that follows the miracle at Trenton. Shortly after the Americans lose at Brandywine Creek, where the British take Philadelphia. American Victory
Sept 19, 1777 - Oct 17, 1777. Turning Point of the War. Showed the French that this is a winnable war for the Americans. King Louis XVI sends troops and navy to the Americans. American Victory
June 28, 1778. Due to vast improvements of the Colonial Army by Von Stueben at Valley Forge. American Victory
February 23, 1779. Frontier battle. Winner controls the Ohio River. American Victory
King's Mountain
October 7, 1780. "Civil War" between Loyalist militia and Patriot militia. Very brutal. British Loyalists switch sides. American Victory
Sept 28, 1781 - Oct 19, 1781. Final battle - British / Cornwallis surrender at Yorktown, Virginia to Washington and Lafayette. American Victory
Crispus Attucks
1st casualty of the Boston Massacre; symbol of innocence lost - bystander killed
Paul Revere
member of Sons of Liberty; alerted the Minutemen of the plans and movements of the British soldiers
Boston Massacre
group of British soldiers fire on unarmed protesters 6 killed; Paul Revere created an engraving of the event telling his version of what happened trying to convince that the British are evil used as propaganda
Continental Congress
during the colonial period; purpose was to relay information, unify the colonies and support war effort
shot heard round the world
Battle of Concord and Lexington
Articles of Confederation
first form of official government; Congress could declare war, couldn't collect taxes but could borrow money, could deal with natives, negotiate trade
weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
couldn't collect taxes; no executive branch; no central leader; 2/3 had to approve powers; it took unanimous decision to amend
Northwest Ordinance
process how a territory becomes a state; a law passed by Congress in 1787 that specified how western lands would be governed
Land Ordinance of 1785
dividing up of and selling of land
Shays Rebellion
by claiming he did not have to pay taxes it showed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation - couldn't collect taxes
James Madison
father of the Confederation; author of Federalist Papers
Virginia Plan
benefited large states with representation being based on population; wanted bicameral legislation
New Jersey Plan
benefited smaller states with representation being based on statehood; wanted unicameral legislation
Connecticut Plan
aka Great Compromise; modern Congress - House of Representatives and Senate
3/5 Compromise
slave states can count 3 out of 5 slaves can be counted into representation numbers
Branches of Government
legislative - makes law; executive - carries out law; judicial - judges law
strong central government
believe government should be state and local authority
Federalist Papers
explained the Constitution in plain terms; written by Jay, Madison and Hamilton
Bill of Rights
1st 10 Amendments guaranteeing rights of citizens
John Adams
Washington's VP; member of 1st cabinet; best friend of Thomas Jefferson; represented the British soldiers a the Boston Massacre and won the case; 2nd president of US
Patrick Henry
"Give me liberty, or give me death!"; Virginian Representative in Continental Congress; member of Sons of Liberty
Thomas Jefferson
VA representative in Continental Congress; penned the Declaration of Independence; VA lawyer; Washington's 1st Secretary of State
Charles Cornwallis
British General; defeats Washington early on; starts to lose some battles to Washington and is sent South to command all British forces in the thous; lost Battle of Yorktown to Washington and ended the war.
Marquis de Lafayette
French general; trained and command militia for Continental arm; Yorktown was his battle plan; he & Washington defeat Cornwallis at Yorktown
John Dickenson
President of Continental Congress; Articles of Confederation (1st US govt); helps create the Federation of 13 states known as the US of America
John Locke
philosopher who laid out the foundation of democracy - natural rights
NW Ordinance of 1787
how a territory becomes a state
Great Compromise
creation of modern congress; bicameral - House of Reps and Senate
believe in strong central government; ie: National Bank
1st Cabinet
VP = Adams; Sec of State=Jefferson; Sec of War = Knox; Sec of Treasury = Hamilton; Atty Gen = Randolph
Whiskey Rebellion
resistance of Hamilton's new taxes; shows that new government CAN enforce it's laws