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60 terms

Soc C 1

STUDY
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independent variable
a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
functional analysis
a theoretical framework in society is viewed as composed of various, each with a function that, when fulfilled contributes to society's equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism
positivism
the application of the scientifc world to the social world; the use of scientific method to test & create scientific theory, created by August Compte
conflict theory
the theorectical framework in which society is viewed as composed groups competing for scarce resources
survey
data collection of data by having people answer a series of questions, must contain a representative sample, & care taken with the wording of the questions
reliability
the extent to which research produces consistent results
variables
research factors that vary or change from one person or situation to another, a measurabel trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different characteristics
class conflict
Karl Max's term for the struggle between capitalists and workers
symbolic interaction
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people used to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another; how we define ourseles, how others define us and we define others
dependent variable
a factor that is change by an independent variable
respondents
people who respond to a survey, either in interviews of by self administered questionaires
validity
the extent to which an operational definition measures what is was intended to measure
correlation
relationship between 2 variables in which a change in one coincides with change in another
quantitative research
this type of research primarily presents data in numerical form
qualitative research
this type of research relies on what is seen in the field as opposed to statistical data
Hawthorne Effect
the unintended influence that researchers have on their subjects
reliability
the extent to which a measure produces consistent results
functionalism
society is like an organism of inter related parts
microsociology
the study of small groups or our everyday experiences
macrosociology
the study of large scale phenomena for the entire civilization
social reform
believe that we study sociology to learn and improve society; Compte, Durkheim and Marx
social analysis
believe that we study and analyze but do not impose our will on it; Weber, Spenser
Herbert Spenser
-social darwinism
-believed that we should not interfere with natural evolution of society ie the strong will survive, and that society would naturally evolve from lower to higher form. By helping the poor we affect the natural evolution of society
Max Weber
-Protestant Ethic, religion is the central force for social change
Karl Marx
-social reformer
-Communism sharing of the nation's wealth, Govt owned everything vs capitalism and private ownership
-society was composed of 2 groups fighting for natural resoucres; battle between the have and have nots
bourgeosie
control class of capitalist (factory owners)
protelariat
exploited class, great mass of workers
-Marx believed that this struggle would create a worker's revolution so that each would work to his ability & receive according to his needs
Auguste Compte
-early founder of sociology
-was the first to use positivism
-social reformer
Emile Durkheim
-social integration
-studied the suicide rates in catholics
-key principle human behavior cannot be simply on individual terms, we must examine the social forces that affect people
Explain the relationship between the Protestant Ethic and the rise of capitalism?
a. Protestants believed in the concept of predetermination, the belief that your fate regarding heaven/hell is predetermined before you are born
b. Protestantism began to undermine the people's emotional security because they wanted to know their outcome
c. They began to look for signs that they were favored by God, and would go to heaven
d. They postulated that God would not want the favored to suffer on earth, and began to equate financial success w/ the sign that they were the chosen ones
e. working harder would bring wealth, would be a sign that they were favored thus chosen and would go to heaven begat capitalism.
Choose between functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interaction and explain how these would explain the rise in divorce?
Conflict theory states that groups of people are in competition for scarce natural resources.
During war times, men often went off to battle leaving the women to have to provide for their families by assuming the role of the man and working. When the men returned from battle, the role of the man vs women was in conflict, women began to discover that they didn't need a man to be the provider if they were in bad relationships, or needs were being met.
Émile Durkheim developed a highly original theory about the relationship between homicide and social factors.
A) True
B) False
false, suicide
Sociology owes credit to Max Weber for a key conceptual tool called anomie.
A) True
B) False
false, Durkheim introduced the concept of anomie, the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior is ineffective. Anomie increases the likelihood of alienation, loneliness, and isolation.
In Karl Marx's analysis, social inequality is determined by men and women who clash in pursuit of their own interests.
A) True
B) False
false, In Karl Marx's analysis, social inequality is determined by ownership, or lack thereof, of key material resources.
Microsociology concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations.
A) True
B) False
false, Macrosociology concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations. Microsociology stresses the study of small groups.
The functionalist perspective emphasizes the way in which parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.
A) True
B) False
true; The functionalist perspective does emphasize the way in which parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. This perspective views society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival.
Conflict theorists are interested in how society's institutions may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position.
A) True
B) False
true; Conflict theorists are interested in how society's institutions may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position. Their emphasis on social change and the redistribution of resources makes conflict theorists more "radical" and "activist" than functionalists.
Which sociologist introduced the concept of the sociological imagination?
A) Max Weber
B) Auguste Comte
C) Harriet Martineau
D) Wright Mills
B) Auguste Comte
Émile Durkheim's research suggested that
A) Catholics had much higher suicide rates than Protestants.
B) there seemed to be higher rates of suicide in times of peace than in times of war and revolution.
C) civilians were more likely than soldiers to take their own lives.
D) suicide is a solitary act, unrelated to group life.
B) there seemed to be higher rates of suicide in times of peace than in times of war and revolution.
Which sociologist introduced the concept of anomie to the discipline?
A) Max Weber
B) Herbert Spencer
C) Émile Durkheim
D) Wright Mills
C) Émile Durkheim
The term anomie refers to
A) a construct, or a made-up model, that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.
B) the study of small groups.
C) the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
D) a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
C) the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
Which sociological perspective emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability?
A) conflict perspective
B) interactionist perspective
C) microsociology
D) functionalist perspective
D) functionalist perspective
Which sociological perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between competing groups?
A) conflict perspective
B) interactionist perspective
C) microsociology
D) functionalist perspective
A) conflict perspective
In the 1990s, the workings of juries became a subject of public scrutiny. A sociologist would be most likely to use which perspective to gain a better understanding of the small-group setting of a jury deliberation room?
A) interactionist perspective
B) conflict perspective
C) functionalist perspective
D) macrosociology
A) interactionist perspective
Which theoretical perspective would examine sports on the microlevel by focusing on how day-to-day social behavior is shaped by the distinctive norms, values, and demands of the world of sports?
A) functionalist perspective
B) conflict perspective
C) interactionist perspective
D) both A and B
C) interactionist perspective
Within sociology, a (an) ____________ is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
A) theory
B) hypothesis
C) operational definition
D) correlation
A) theory
Thinking of society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival is a reflection of which theoretical perspective?
A) interactionist perspective
B) functionalist perspective
C) conflict perspective
D) feminist perspective
B) functionalist perspective
The __________ perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole.
A) conflict
B) functionalist
C) interactionist
D) feminist
C) interactionist
According to the text, which of the major theoretical perspectives views sports as an "opiate" that encourages people to seek a temporary fix rather than focus on personal problems?
A) functionalist perspective
B) conflict perspective
C) interactionist perspective
D) feminist perspective
B) conflict perspective
The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called the
A) dependent variable.
B) hypothetical variable.
C) correlation variable.
D) independent variable.
D) independent variable.
A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, is known as a (an)
A) observation.
B) ethnography.
C) experiment.
D) survey.
D) survey.
A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions is referred to as a (an)
A) operational definition.
B) theory.
C) hypothesis.
D) variable.
D) variable.
A correlation exists when
A) one variable causes something to occur in another variable.
B) two or more variables are causally related.
C) a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable.
D) a negative relationship exists between two variables.
C) a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable.
The degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study is termed
A) reliability.
B) validity.
C) sampling representativeness.
D) predictability.
B) validity.
Which of the following terms is used to refer to subjects of observational research who deviate from their typical behavior because they realize that they are under observation?
A) Hawthorne effect
B) causal logic
C) secondary analysis
D) value neutrality
A) Hawthorne effect
The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called the dependent variable.
A) True
B) False
B) False The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called the independent variable. The action of the dependent variable "depends" on the influence of the independent variable.
The scientific method requires that research results be both valid and reliable. Reliability refers to the extent to which a measure produces consistent results.
A) True
B) False
A) True Reliability refers to the extent to which a measure produces consistent results. Validity refers to the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study.
Sociologists use the term reliability to refer to the unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjects.
A) True
B) False
B) False Sociologists use the term Hawthorne effect to refer to the unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjects.
Researchers conducting an experiment assign the subjects to one of two groups. These groups are called the dependent and independent groups.
A) True
B) False
B) False Researchers conducting an experiment assign the subjects to one of two groups. These groups are called the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group is exposed to an independent variable; the control group is not.
A relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other is referred to as causality.
A) True
B) False
B) False A relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other is referred to as a correlation.