A type of system that uses circulating pumps and fans to collect and distribute heat.
Any source of energy other than fossil fuels that is used for constructive purposes.
The unit of electric current in the meter-kilogram-second system of units. Referred to as amp and symbolized as A.
the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity; Energy is transferred through collisions from one molecule to another
the transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance; it can take place only in fluids
The net transfer of electric charge
the energy of moving electric charges
A form of energy caused by the movement of electrons.
A form of energy that travels through space as waves.
the process in which an electric current is used to produce a chemical reaction, such as the decomposition of water
the ability to do work or cause change
a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work
First Law of Thermodynamics
a law that states that the internal energy in a system remains constant and the change in thermal energy of a system is equal to the work done on the system.
Fuel Cell Stack
Individual fuel cells that are combined in series.
Energy in transit due to a temperature difference between the source from which the energy is coming and a sink toward which the energy is going
Absolute temperature scale
Line of Best Fit
A straight line that comes closest to the points on a scatter plot
unit that measures the resistance of an electric current
States that the direct current flowing in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the voltage applied to the circuit
Passive Solar Energy Collection
Systems that do not make use of any externally powered, moving parts, such as circulation pumps, to move heated water or air.
Product Development Lifecycle
Stages a product goes through from concept and use to eventual withdrawal from the market place.
the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
A resource that can be replaced when needed.
the measurement of how difficult it is for charges to flow through a material
The measure of resistance to heat flow
Second Law of Thermodynamics
a law that states all natural processes proceed in a preferred direction
A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance
two objects are at the same temperature; there is no flow of heat between them
A part of the physical world as described by its thermodynamic properties such as temperature, volume, pressure, concentration, surface tension, and viscosity.
the study of heat and its transformation to different forms of energy
A measure of thermal transmittance through a material
The unit of potential difference symbolized as V.
The potential difference measured in volts. The amount of work to be done to move a charge from one point to another along an electric circuit.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
the law that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body then the first two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other
energy derived from sources that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment
the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
Plant materials and animal waste used especially as a source of fuel.
The net transfer of electric charge (electron movement along a path) per unit of time.
Energy caused by the movement of electrons.
The flow of electrical power or charge
The production of electricity in conductors with the use of magnets
The ratio of the useful energy delivered by a dynamic system to the energy supplied to it
A fundamental entity of nature that is transferred between parts of a system in the production of physical change within the system and usually regarded as the capacity for doing work
Changing one form of energy to another
Environmental Protection Agency
An organization that works to develop and enforce regulations that implement environmental laws enacted by Congress
A natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms
A dynamo or similar machine for converting mechanical energy into electricity
The use of heat from within the Earth or from the atmosphere near oceans
The state when objects are not yet in motion
The production of an electric or magnetic state by the proximity (without contact) of an electrified or magnetized body
An energy source that will never run out
Energy which a body possesses by virtue of being in motion
A resource that cannot be replaced once used
The unit of electric resistance in the meter-kilogram-second system of units. Symbolized as Ω
States that the direct current flowing in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the voltage applied to the circuit
A closed electrical circuit in which the current is divided into two or more paths and then returns via a common path to complete the circuit
The energy that a piece of matter has because of its position or nature or because of the arrangement of parts
Changes one form of power to another
A system that links electricity produced in power stations to deliver it to where it is needed
A resource that can be replaced when needed
The opposition that a device or material offers to the flow of direct current
A result of a force moving an object a certain distance
A machine for producing power in which a wheel or rotor is made to revolve by a fast-moving flow of water, steam, gas, or air
The rate at which work is performed or energy is expended
The rotating member of an electrical machine
A circuit in which all parts are connected end to end to provide a single path of current
The unit of potential difference symbolized as V
The potential difference measured in volts. The amount of work to be done to move a charge from one point to another along an electric circuit
The condition or quality of being true, correct, or exact; precision; exactness.
A group of machined or handmade parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit.
A group technique for solving problems, generating ideas, stimulating creative thinking, etc., by unrestrained spontaneous participation in discussion
A part or element of a larger whole
A general agreement.
A limit to a design process. Constraints may be such things as appearance, funding, space, materials, and human capabilities.
A tool for systematically ranking alternatives according to a set of criteria.
A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints.
A major or minor change in the design of an item, effected in order to correct a deficiency, to facilitate production, or to improve operational effectiveness.
A systematic problem-solving strategy, with criteria and constraints, used to develop many possible solutions to solve a problem
A part of a design brief that challenges the designer, describes what a design solution should do without describing how to solve the problem,
A person who designs any of a variety of things. This usually implies the task of creating drawings or in some way using visual cues to organize work.
Not having fixed limits; unrestricted; broad
A sketch that shows an object's height, width, and depth in a single view.
A part of a design brief that clearly and concisely identifies a client's or target consumer's problem, need, or want.
The reason for which something is done or for which something exists.
A rough drawing representing the main features of an object or scene and often made as a preliminary study.
A type of 3D CAD modeling that represents the volume of an object, not just its lines and surfaces
A person or group for which product or service design efforts are intended.
A collection of individuals, each with his or her own expertise, brought together to benefit a common goal.
A force with its resultant passing through the centroid of a particular section and being perpendicular to the plane of the section. A force in a direction parallel to the long axis of the structure
The stress required to fracture a material whether by compression, tension, or shear
When a material is reduced in volume by the application of pressure; the reciprocal of the bulk modulus
Any alteration of shape or dimensions of a body caused by stresses, thermal expansion or contraction, chemical or metallurgical transformations, or shrinkage and expansions due to moisture change
Test methods used to examine an object, material, or system causing permanent damage to its usefulness
Maximum stress that a material will withstand without permanent deformation
The fractional increase in a material's length due to stress in tension or thermal expansion
Factor of Safety
The ratio of actual strength to required strength
Condition caused by collapse, break, or bending, so that a structure or structural element can no longer fulfill its purpose
The loss of the load-bearing ability of a material under repeated load application, as opposed to a single load
The law stating that the stress of a solid is directly proportional to the strain applied to it
Modulus of Elasticity
The ratio of the increment of some specified form of stress to the increment of some specified form of strain, such as Young's modulus, the bulk modulus, or the shear modulus. Also known as coefficient of elasticity, elasticity modulus, elastic modulus
Test methods used to examine an object, material, or system without impairing its future usefulness
The ability to get answers to questions through a conscious, organized process. The answers are usually, but not necessarily, quantitative
Point at which the deformation is no longer directly proportional to the applied force. Hooke's Law no longer applies
Operational techniques necessary to satisfy all quality requirements; includes process monitoring and the elimination of root causes of unsatisfactory product or service quality performance
The probability that a component part, equipment, or system will satisfactorily perform its intended function under given circumstances, such as environmental conditions, limitations as to operating time, and frequency and thoroughness of maintenance for a specified period of time
A mechanical property of a material that shows how effective the material is absorbing mechanical energy without sustaining any permanent damage
Nominal stress developed in a material at rupture. Not necessarily equal to ultimate strength. Since necking is not taken into account in determining rupture strength, seldom indicates true stress at rupture
A measure of how easily a material can be twisted
A statistical measurement of variability
The collection and analysis of numerical data in large quantities
Change in the length of an object in some direction per unit
The force acting across a unit area in a solid material resisting the separation, compacting, or sliding that tends to be induced by external forces
Graphical representation of a material's mechanical properties
The condition of a string, wire, or rod that is stretched between two points
Mechanical property of a material that indicates the ability of the material to handle overloading before it fractures
Sometimes referred to as tensile strength; determined by measuring the maximum load a material specimen can carry when in the shape of a rectangular bar or cylindrical can
The average of the squared differences from the mean
A description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured.
Categorical data graph.
The probability of an event occurring based upon other event probabilities.
Numbers or information describing some characteristic.
Measure of data scatter.
Amount of difference between a value and the mean.
An activity with observable results.
A subset of a sample space.
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
Frequency distribution graph.
Measure of variation equal to the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean.
Middle value of a set of values arranged in order of magnitude.
The value that occurs most frequently.
Bell-shaped probability distribution.
The result of an experiment.
A form of graph which represents percentage values as segments of a circle.
The calculated likelihood that a given event will occur.
To monitor and control a process so that the quality of the output/product improves.
Values that possess names or labels.
Values that represent a measurable quantity.
The use of quality control techniques associated with a process.
The probability of satisfactory operation of the product in a given environment over a specified time interval.
A set of all possible outcomes or events in an experiment that cannot be further broken down.
The square root of the variance.
The collection, evaluation, and interpretation of data.
Statistical Process Control
SPC is a method of monitoring, controlling, and ideally improving a process through statistical analysis. Its four basic steps include measuring the process, eliminating variances in the process to make it consistent, monitoring the process, and improving the process to its best target value.
The difference between the maximum and minimum dimensions allowed within the design of a product.
The difference between samples.
Universal System Model
A flowchart style diagram that can be used to break down any system, natural, social, or technological, into it's different parts.
Something put into a system, such as resources, in order to achieve a result.
The results of the operation of any system.
A series of actions or steps taken to do work with an input
Information about the output of a system that can be used to make adjustments.
The purpose of operating a system
Open Loop System
A system that can not monitor it's own output and has to rely on human feedback to control it.
Closed Loop System
A system that monitors it's operation, compares it to it's programming, and adjusts itself to maintain good operation
The use of tools, resources, and knowledge to create systems, tools, and techniques to meet a want or need.
A way of doing something
A group of parts working together to achieve a goal
A device we do work with
A material or information we do work to
Something we can live and be safe without
Something we would die or be harmed without
Energy and Power Technology
Technology for Generating, Controlling, Storing, and Transmitting Energy
Technology for Moving people or cargo from one place to another
Technology for Preventing, Treating, and Diagnosing Illnesses and Injuries
Agriculture and Bio Technology
Technology for Using and Caring for Organisms from Fungus and Bacteria to Plants and Animals
Technology for Building Structures
Technology for Creating, Sending, and Receiving information
Technology for Planning and Producing items
The result of using technology
A period of time during which early humans made lasting tools and weapons mainly from stone; the earliest known period of human culture
A period of time after humans learned to smelt metal. Agriculture and large cities were starting to play a major role in human life
A period of time dominated by the Romans. Steel, roads, and professional engineering were developed.
"Medieval Times" is another name for this period of time. Castles, Sailing ships, and Printing are technologies know from this period
An age of technology where math, science, and art developed at a fast pace. Most basic scientific tools like microscopes or thermometers were develop during this time.
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s
The period of time after the Industrial Revolution. Many people moved to cities. Machines powered the tools used in the fields and factories.
The current technological age brought to us by the Transistor. Information and Electronics that use information dominate our lives.
A device that permits current to flow through it in only one direction.
A small electronic device used in a circuit to amplify a current or switch a current on/off.
a motor that can be positioned within a given angle range using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
the wire used to send voltage to a component to make it work or to receive information from a sensor for the Arduino to interprete
small electric device that converts direct current electricity into mechanical motion
on a transistor, it is the positive lead where you supply voltage to run a component
on a transistor, it is the lead where you supply the single to control the transistor
on a transistor, it is the negative lead where you connect the component
a collection of functions that are specific to a connect component
the code use to add a library to a program
a component that vibrates when electricity is passed through it.
a resistor used to connect a component to a positive voltage so it can used that voltage as a baseline
a button that you push
a voltage that is created in a circuit that is unregulated and can confuse programming or damage components
Light Emitting Diode
A diode that will produce light when current flows through it.
An electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current
used to establish connections between the central micro controller and other devices such as buttons and sensors.
A circuit board for wiring temporary circuits, usually used for prototypes or laboratory work.
common return path for electric current, another name for the negative connection point
the micro controller development board that will be at the heart of your projects. It's a simple computer, but one that has no way for you to interact with it yet. You will be building the circuits and interfaces for interaction, and telling the micro controller how to interface with other components.
where you plug wires into on the arduino
lines in the program that are used to inform yourself or others about the way the program works. They are ignored by the compiler, and not exported to the processor
Called when a sketch starts. Use it to initialize variables, pin modes, start using libraries, etc
does precisely what its name suggests, and loops consecutively, allowing your program to change and respond
Allows you to send or not send voltage to a pin
Pauses the program for the amount of time (in miliseconds) specified
a collection of variables that are accessed with an index number.
A symbol used to represent a quantity that can change
allows a programmer to create modular pieces of code that perform a defined task and then return to the area of code from where it was called
The positive pole on a electronic component
The negative pole on a electronic component
A diagram that uses symbols to represent components of a system.
All the activities that we do to stay healthy. Taking medicine, doing a treatment, or exercising are examples
is when you exert you mind or body
intense, short bursts of activity in which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
Use questions, observations, and machines to determine illness
Use chemicals, surgery, activity, and machines to limit illness or cure it
Use chemicals, surgery, activity, and machines to keep illness away
Shoots excited particles through your body onto a sensitive sheet that is develop to see solid objects in your body
the diagnosis and treatment of patients in remote places using video conferencing, internet connect medical devices, and file sharing.
A doctor who focuses on one system of the body
A medical doctor who provides physical checkups and general care.
the science of producing food, either a crop(plants) or animal, on a large scale to feed many people
The study of life
the use of tools, resources, and knowledge to create better way of growing crops(plants) and animals at a large scale
The use of tools, resources, and knowledge to manipulate living organisms or their components to produce useful products.
Form of agriculture in which farmers grow plants by exposing their roots to a nutrient-rich water solution instead of soil.
the use of tools, resources, and knowledge to solve problems
Something built to demonstrate what a system, object, or design will look or feel like
plants grown on a farm
The process, powered by the sun, that plants use to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical energy the plant needs. This process releases oxygen
When a plant uses up some of it's chemical energy and releases carbon monoxide
Building new homes or dwelling places.
Building businesses, offices, and skyscrapers.
building and remodeling of manufacturing facilities, power plants, and related structures.
projects such as highways, parks, and libraries built with public funds for public use.
An assembly of structural members joined to form a rigid framework, usually connected to form triangles.
The open space under a bridge which it is designed to cross.
the squeezing force.
the pulling force.
the twisting force.
the sliding force.
The weight of the structure or structural components, no furniture, people, machines, or objects are in the structure.
a drawing that uses a scale to represent an object as smaller or larger than the real world object. Uses the formula: scale ratio = drawing length / actual length
place where truss member connect together
the pieces of wood, metal, or other materials that make up a truss and distribute the load
Metal or wooden plates used to connect and strengthen the joints of two or more separate components
Bridge type characterized by towers and a deck suspended by suspenders attached to cables that are secured to anchorages.
type of beam bridge which gets support from counter balanced beams meeting in the middle. Requires lots of materials to carry heavy loads, can get expensive.Virtually indestructible.
Cable stay Bridge
Has one or more towers, from which cables support the bridge deck
The forces acting on the bridge
The use of tools, resources, and knowledge to meet a want or need.
Technology that is use to send, receive, encode, decode, store, or retrieve information.
anything used to communicate visually be it text, stylize text, graphs, maps, illustrations, or shapes
When a sender (human or machine) translates a piece of information from one language into another so it can be understood by that next part of the communication system
When a receiver (human or machine) translates a piece of information into a language it can understand.
One of the main parts of a communication system, this part creates and transmits the message
One of the main parts of a communication system, this part is the information that is being sent
One of the main parts of a communication system, this part is the destination of the information
Facts, Opinions, or Emotion that is handled by a communication system
The sound present in a room or location before human noise
Free audio editing software
mpeg 4; a compressed file format that can be used for audio or video; appropriate for streaming
A form of HD video set to 1280x720
A form of HD video set to 1920x1808 pixels
a measure of the clarity of an image, measure of the ability of a video camera to reproduce fine detail
the amount of data transferred per second as a video/audio plays. high amount of this = better quality video
Narration which is added after filming and is not in sync with the action.
A small part of a larger video
Occurs when the input volume of the audio being recorded goes beyond the capacity of Audacity. As a result that part of the recording will be missing from the track. This can distort the audio output by leaving small gaps in the playback.
One line of audio. You can add more of these lines, and all of them will be mixed together to create your final output, but during editing you can manipulate each line of audio independently.
a technique for superimposing one video image onto another; most common chroma key colors are blue and green
An animated effect that controls how one clip is removed from the screen and the next one appears in a video
when a user drags a cursor or playhead across the video or audio track to play it back slowly or position the playhead on a frame.
the vertical marker(usually a line) in the timeline that marks the progress of the video or audio when it is previewed in the editing program.
Panel used to place video, images, and sounds on tracks.
these people find ways to eliminate wastefulness in production processes. They create efficient ways to use workers, machines, materials, information, and energy to make a product or provide a service at a lower cost.
these people design and create websites. They are responsible for the look of the site. They are also responsible for the site's technical aspects, such as performance and capacity, which are measures of a website's speed and how much traffic the site can handle. They also may create content for the site.
Data Communication Analyst
these people design and build data communication networks, including local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and intranets. These networks range from a small connection between two offices to a multinational series of globally distributed communications systems.
a document that introduces yourself, explains what job position you are looking for, describes your skills, and thanks a potential employer for their consideration
a document that states the job position you are looking for, gives a historical record of your education, training, and employment. It may also include reference contacts and special interests.
Occupational Outlook Handbook
A guide published by the Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, detailing hundreds of jobs, their requirements, and their future possibilities
An occupation that you enjoy for a significant period of your life and with opportunities for progress.
Giving credit to the authors of source information and formatted using one of the many sets of rules.
A list of the citations you used to help create a document that you researched.
A fixed amount of money you earn, no matter how many hours you worked.
work you do to make money even if you don't like the tasks.
a mode of transportation using aircraft to move people and cargo to their destinations
materials or products carried on transportation vehicles
a subsystem enabling a vehicle to change speed and direction
a subsystem to a transportation vehicle that receives information needed to operate the vehicle
a system of travel using more than one transportation system. For example, an air traveler may use land transportation to get to the airport and an escalator or people mover to get to the plane.
a transportation system operating on or beneath the earth's surface
the physical placement of cargo and people on a vehicle
a vehicle subsystem the provides the means to move a vehicle
an invisible path determining the way of travel from one place to another
a sea lane. The regular route ships take over the water.
a new mode of transportation that uses unmanned and manned flights to explore the universe.
a vehicle subsystem that provides a rigid framework to protect the vehicle's contents and support other systems
the movement of people and materials from one place to another
transportation through, and supported by, water. This includes ships, sailboats, rafts, barges, tugboats, and submarines.
The point in the path of an orbiting body at which it is nearest to the body that it orbits.
The point in the path of an orbiting body at which it is farthest away from the body that it orbits.
Thrust to Weight Ratio
The comparison of how much thrust a propulsion system produces to the weight of the vehicle. Thrust to Weight Ratios less than one mean the vehicle won't move.
The pushing or pulling force exerted by the engine of an aircraft or rocket
travelling in a circular or nearly circular path around another object
the path followed by a projectile flying or an object moving while being pulled on by other forces
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can be converted from one form to another.
heat, is the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within substances
is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. It is the only energy form that can flow through empty space.
energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor.
energy stored in the movement of objects
is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules.
is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom — the energy that holds the nucleus together.
Non Renewable Energy
a source of energy that exsists in limited quantities and once used, cannot be replaced except over the course of millions of years
Any source of energy that can be continually produced and is inexhaustible given current conditions.
A system that processes a source of energy and operates a load.
A system that requires energy to do it's work.
picrotrial representations of energy conversions; an arrow (left to right) repersents the energy changes taking place; the width of the arrow represents the power or energy involved at a given stage; degraded energy is shown with an arrow up or down
Any machine that converts kinetic energy into mechanical (rotational) energy.
Any machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
A machine that uses the wind's energy to mill grain.
A machine that uses the wind's energy to create electricity.
The "box" behind a wind turbine's blades contains the wind turbine's instrumentation cluster, gear box, and generator.
An instrument that can measure useful electrical quantities such as voltage, current, resistance.
A device that allows one to connect wires without soldering.
Ohm's Law is the equation V=IR and relates voltage, current, and resistance in simple circuits.
Faraday's Law of Induction
This law states that when a changing magnetic flux passes through a coil of wire, a voltage will be induced across that wire.
Structures connected to a central hub that are pushed by the wind causing them to rotate. They commonly have an airfoil shape with the curve on the back.
Structure that holds turbine and nacelle in the air stream
an object such as an airplane wing or a bird wing with one flat side and one curved side. This causes a pressure difference with low pressure on the curved side and high pressure on the flat side. This produces a lifting force.
A quantity that involves both magnitude and direction.
A quantity that does not involve direction.
A net distance traveled including direction; An objects change in position.
Vectors that lie flat in a plane and can be written as the sum of a horizontal vector and a vertical vector.
Special vectors that have a magnitude of 1. These include horizontal basis vector, i, and vertical basis vector, j.
An objects location in a certain space.
Newton's First Law
An object will continue in its state of motion unless compelled to change by a force impressed upon it. Also called Law of Inertia
An object's natural resistance to changes in their state of motion.
Newton's Second Law
Predicts what will happen when an unbalanced force does act on an object: the object's velocity will change / the object will accelerate.
Newton's Third Law
To ever action, there is an equal but opposite reaction.
The gravitational force exerted on an object by the Earth (or by whatever planet it happens to be on).
The component of the contact force that is perpendicular to the surface. (When an object is in contact with a surface, the surface exerts a contact force on the object.)
The component of the contact force that is parallel to the surface. (When an object is in contact with a surface, the surface exerts a contact force on the object).
A type of friction that occurs when there is no relative motion between the object and the surface (no sliding).
A type of friction that occurs when there is relative motion (when the surface is sliding).
Coefficient of Friciton
Represents the nature of surfaces.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can not just appear out of nowhere nor can it disappear in a closed system; it must always take on another form.
The application of force over a distance and the resulting change in energy of the system that the force is acted on.
Total Mechanical Energy
The sum of an object's kinetic and potential energies.
The rate at which work gets done, or energy gets transferred.
The product of force and the time during which it acts.
Another way of writing Newton's Second Law. (Written J = change in momentum)
A vector quantity given by p = mv
Uniform Circular Motion
When an objects speed around its path is constant.
When the acceleration vector points toward the center of the circle. The thing that turns the velocity vector to keep the object traveling in a circle.
Newton's Law of Gravitation
Any two objects in the universe that exert and attractive force on each other - called the gravitiational force - whoes strength is proportional to the product of the object's masses and
The mathematical tools for describing motion in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
The energy of an object or system has by virtue of its position of configuration.
Total Mechanical Energy
The sum of an objects kinetic and potential energies.
Law of Conservation of Total Energy
K(initial)+U(Initial) = K(final)+U(final)
A type of collision in which the objects bounce perfectly off each other in opposite directions. Kinetic Energy is conserved. Momentum is conserved.
A type of collision in which the objects travel in the same direction after the collision. Kinetic Energy is lost. Momentum is conserved.
Perfectly Inelastic Collision
The objects stick together and travel in the same direction. Greatest kinetic energy is lost. Momentum is conserved.
Law of Conservation of Momentum
The momentum before equals the momentum after. total p (initial) = total p (final).
Uniform Circular Motion
The objects speed around its path (constant).
The force that produces centripetal acceleration. Pulls on object toward the center.
Universal Gravitational Constant
9.81, signified by the capital letter G.
The measure of a force's effectiveness at making an object spin or rotate.
Occurs when the sum of the forces acting on an object are zero.
If the sum of the torques acting on an object is zero.
State of equilibrium when an object is at rest.
The tendency of an object in motion to rotate until its acted upon by an outside force.
When a spring is neither stretched nor compressed it is said to be in it ___________ ____________.
F = -kx
Simple Harmonic Motion
Any vibrating system for which the restoring force is directly proportional to the negative of the displacement is said to exhibit _________________ _______________ ______________.
The maximum displacement from equilibrium.
The amount of time it takes to complete a cycle.
The number of cycles that can be completed per unit time.
Consists of a weight of mass attached to a string or a mass-less rod that swings, without friction, about the vertical equilibrium position.
A disturbance transmitted by a medium from one point to another, without the medium its self being transported.
The points at which the rope has its maximum vertical displacement above the horizontal.
The points at which the rope has its maximum vertical displacement below the horizontal.
A wave vibrating perpendicular to the direction in which it propagates (travels horizontally).
Superposition (Of Waves)
When two or more waves meet, the displacement at any point of the medium is equal to the algebraic sum of the displacements due to the individual waves.
When two waves has displacements of the same sign when they overlap, the combined wave will have a displacement of greater magnitude than either individual wave.
When two waves have opposite displacements and meet, the combined waveform will have a displacement of smaller magnitude than either individual wave.
When two waves meet and the crest meets the crest and trough meets trough perfectly. These waves constructively interfere and the amplitude of the combined wave will be the sum of the individual amplitudes.
Out of Phase
When two waves meet and the crest of one meets the trough of the other and vice versa. These waves will destructively interfere completely and the amplitude of the combined wave will be the difference between the individual amplitudes.
The wave oscillates vertically and remains fixed. The crests and troughs no longer travel down the length of the string.
A wave the travels and oscillates in the same direction. (i.e sound waves)
The rate at which sound waves transmit energy, per unit area.
The loudness of sound.
When two waves interfere constructively, producing an increase in sound level.
Equal to the difference between the frequencies of the two combining sounds.
The shift in frequency and wavelength that occurs when the source and detector are in relative motion.
A quality had by protons and electrons that gives them an attractive force.
Occurs when an imbalance between the numbers of protons and electrons exists.
The presence of charge creates an ___________ ___________ in the space that surrounds it.
The space surrounding the Earth a permeated by a ___________ ____________ that's created by the Earth.
When two equal but opposite charges form a pair.
Materials that permit the flow of excess charge.
A material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely.
A material that offers no resistance to the flow of charges.
When a current always travels in the same direction through the pathway.
The thing that creates current.
Kirchhoff's First Law (The Junction Rule) (The Node Rule)
Says that the total current that enters a junction must equal the total current that leaves the junction.
Kirchhoff's Second Law (The Loop Rule)
Says that the sum of the potential differences (positive and negative) That traverse any closed loop in a circuit must be zero.
The single force that could replace all the individual acting on an object and produce the same effect. Forces acting in the same direction add to together to make this.
Any force that always pushed an object toward an equilibrium position.
Goal(s) that the design success is measured against
Limitation put on design
A document that states the problem, what the design will do to solve it, and constraints on the design
Engineering Design Process
A systematic, iterative problem solving method
Movement of heat through a fluid
Movement of heat through a solid
Movement of heat through empty space by electromagnetic waves
a process that can be applied repeatedly with the hope of making improvement to a design
To come up with as many ideas as possible without worrying about constraints.
A form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature.
Removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
Interpret data to reach conclusions
the application of practical & scientific knowledge to a methodical problem solving process.
the branch of physics that deals with the action of forces on bodies and with motion, comprised of kinetics, statics, and kinematics.
Also, known as velocity, it is a measure of how fast an object is moving. Change in distance over time. v=d/t
refers to how fast something is moving in a circle. It is measured in units of angular-distance per time (i.e. degree per second) or rotational cycles per time (i.e. revolutions per minute.) When someone talks about "RPM" they are referencing rotational speed (i.e. when talking about the RPM of a car engine, one is describing how fast the engine in spinning.)
A change in speed over a period of time is described as an acceleration; the higher the acceleration the faster the change in speed. A=v/t^2
an influence that causes a change of movement, direction or shape. Force is measured in units such as Pounds or Newtons. F=M*A
the exertion or effort directed to produce or accomplish something. W=F*d
the rate at which work is performed and energy is converted. P= W/t
a spinning force. Torque is described by the magnitude of the force multiplied by the distance it is from the center of rotation (Force x Distance = Torque). Torque is measured in units of force*distance, such as Inch-Pounds of Newton-Meters.
the rapidity of motion or operation; swiftness; speed.
a servomechanism that supplies and transmits a measured amount of energy for the operation of another mechanism or system, like a gripper or launcher
an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity.
electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts.
the flow of an electric charge through a material.
the unexpected or unwanted stopping of an engine or motor