586 terms

TSA Technology Bowl Improved

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Terms in this set (...)

H
Hydrogen
He
Helium
Li
Lithium
Be
Beryllium
B
Boron
C
Carbon
N
Nitrogen
O
Oxygen
F
Florine
Ne
Neon
Na
Sodium
Mg
Magnesium
Al
Aluminum
Si
Silicon
P
Phosphorus
S
Sulfur
Cl
Chlorine
Ar
Argon
K
Potassium
Ca
Calcium
Sc
Scandium
Ti
Titanium
V
Vanadium
Cr
Chromium
Mn
Manganese
Fe
Iron
Co
Cobalt
Ni
Nickel
Cu
Copper
Zn
Zinc
Ga
Gallium
Ge
Germanium
As
Arsenic
Se
Selenium
Br
Bromine
Kr
Krypton
Rb
Rubidium
Sr
Strontium
Y
Yttrium
Zr
Zirconium
Nb
Niobium
Mo
Molybdenum
Tc
Technetium
Ru
Ruthenium
Rh
Rhodium
Pd
Palladium
Ag
Silver
Cd
Cadmium
In
Indium
Sn
Tin
Sb
Antimony
Te
Tellurium
I
Iodine
Xe
Xenon
Cs
Ceslum
Ba
Barium
La
Lanthanum
Ce
Cerium
Pr
Praseodymium
Nd
Neodymium
Pm
Promethium
Sm
Samarium
Eu
Europium
Gd
Gadolinium
Tb
Terbium
Dy
Dysprosium
Ho
Holmium
Er
Erbium
Tm
Thulium
Yb
Ytterbium
Lu
Lutetium
Hf
Hafnium
Ta
Tantalum
W
Tungsten
Re
Rhenium
Os
Osmium
Ir
Iridium
Pt
Platinum
Au
Gold
Hg
Mercury
Tl
Thallium
Pb
Lead
Bi
Bismuth
Po
Polonium
At
Astatine
Rn
Radon
Fr
Francium
Ra
Radium
Ac
Actinium
Th
Thorium
Pa
Protactinium
U
Uranium
Np
Neptunium
Pu
Plutonium
Am
Americium
Cm
Curium
Bk
Berkelium
Cf
Californium
Es
Einsteinium
Fm
Fermium
Md
Mendelevium
No
Nobelium
Lr
Lawrencium
Mercury
Hg(2)(+2)
ammonium
NH4(+)
nitrite
NO2(-)
nitrate
NO3(-)
sulfite
SO3(2-)
sulfate
SO4(2-)
hydrogen sulfate
HSO4(-)
hydroxide
OH(-)
cyanide
CN(-)
phosphate
PO4(3-)
hydrogen phosphate
HPO4(2-)
dihydrogen phosphate
H2PO4(-)
Thiocyanate
NCS (-1)
carbonate
CO3(2-)
hydrogen carbonate
HCO3(-)
hypochlorite
ClO(-)
chlorite
ClO2(-)
chlorate
ClO3(-)
perchlorate
ClO4(-)
acetate
C2H3O2(-)
permanganate
MnO4(-)
dichromate
Cr2O7(2-)
chromate
CrO4(2-)
peroxide
O2(2-)
Oxalate
C2O4(-2)
Thiosulfate
S2O3(-2)
Hydrogen
H⁺
Lithium
Li⁺
Sodium
Na⁺
Potassium
K⁺
Cesium
Cs⁺
Beryllium
Be²⁺
Magnesium
Mg²⁺
Calcium
Ca²⁺
Barium
Ba²⁺
Aluminium
Al³⁺
Hydride
H⁻
Fluoride
F⁻
Chloride
Cl⁻
Bromide
Br⁻
Iodide
I⁻
Oxide
O²⁻
Sulfide
S²⁻
Nitride
N³⁻
Phosphide
P³⁻
Active Solar Energy Collection
A type of system that uses circulating pumps and fans to collect and distribute heat.
Alternative Energy
Any source of energy other than fossil fuels that is used for constructive purposes.
Ampere
The unit of electric current in the meter-kilogram-second system of units. Referred to as amp and symbolized as A.
Conduction
the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity; Energy is transferred through collisions from one molecule to another
Convection
the transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance; it can take place only in fluids
Current
The net transfer of electric charge
Electrical Energy
the energy of moving electric charges
Electricity
A form of energy caused by the movement of electrons.
Electromagnetic Energy
A form of energy that travels through space as waves.
Electrolysis
the process in which an electric current is used to produce a chemical reaction, such as the decomposition of water
Energy
the ability to do work or cause change
Entropy
a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work
First Law of Thermodynamics
a law that states that the internal energy in a system remains constant and the change in thermal energy of a system is equal to the work done on the system.
Fuel Cell Stack
Individual fuel cells that are combined in series.
Heat
Energy in transit due to a temperature difference between the source from which the energy is coming and a sink toward which the energy is going
Kelvin
Absolute temperature scale
Line of Best Fit
A straight line that comes closest to the points on a scatter plot
Ohm
unit that measures the resistance of an electric current
Ohm's Law
States that the direct current flowing in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the voltage applied to the circuit
Passive Solar Energy Collection
Systems that do not make use of any externally powered, moving parts, such as circulation pumps, to move heated water or air.
Product Development Lifecycle
Stages a product goes through from concept and use to eventual withdrawal from the market place.
Radiation
the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Renewable Energy
A resource that can be replaced when needed.
Resistance
the measurement of how difficult it is for charges to flow through a material
R-value
The measure of resistance to heat flow
Second Law of Thermodynamics
a law that states all natural processes proceed in a preferred direction
Temperature
A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance
Thermal Equilibrium
two objects are at the same temperature; there is no flow of heat between them
Thermodynamic System
A part of the physical world as described by its thermodynamic properties such as temperature, volume, pressure, concentration, surface tension, and viscosity.
Thermodynamics
the study of heat and its transformation to different forms of energy
U-value
A measure of thermal transmittance through a material
Volt
The unit of potential difference symbolized as V.
Voltage
The potential difference measured in volts. The amount of work to be done to move a charge from one point to another along an electric circuit.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
the law that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body then the first two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other
Alternative Energy
energy derived from sources that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment
Ampere
the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
Biomass
Plant materials and animal waste used especially as a source of fuel.
Current
The net transfer of electric charge (electron movement along a path) per unit of time.
Electrical Energy
Energy caused by the movement of electrons.
Electricity
The flow of electrical power or charge
Electromagnetic Induction
The production of electricity in conductors with the use of magnets
Effiency
The ratio of the useful energy delivered by a dynamic system to the energy supplied to it
Energy
A fundamental entity of nature that is transferred between parts of a system in the production of physical change within the system and usually regarded as the capacity for doing work
Energy Conservation
Changing one form of energy to another
Environmental Protection Agency
An organization that works to develop and enforce regulations that implement environmental laws enacted by Congress
Fossil Fuel
A natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms
Generator
A dynamo or similar machine for converting mechanical energy into electricity
Geothermal Energy
The use of heat from within the Earth or from the atmosphere near oceans
Gravitational Energy
The state when objects are not yet in motion
Induction
The production of an electric or magnetic state by the proximity (without contact) of an electrified or magnetized body
Inexhaustible Energy
An energy source that will never run out
Kinetic Energy
Energy which a body possesses by virtue of being in motion
Nonrenewable Energy
A resource that cannot be replaced once used
Ohm
The unit of electric resistance in the meter-kilogram-second system of units. Symbolized as Ω
Ohm's Law
States that the direct current flowing in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the voltage applied to the circuit
Parallel Circuit
A closed electrical circuit in which the current is divided into two or more paths and then returns via a common path to complete the circuit
Potential Energy
The energy that a piece of matter has because of its position or nature or because of the arrangement of parts
Power Converter
Changes one form of power to another
Power Grid
A system that links electricity produced in power stations to deliver it to where it is needed
Renewable Energy
A resource that can be replaced when needed
Resistance
The opposition that a device or material offers to the flow of direct current
Work
A result of a force moving an object a certain distance
Turbine
A machine for producing power in which a wheel or rotor is made to revolve by a fast-moving flow of water, steam, gas, or air
Power
The rate at which work is performed or energy is expended
Rotor
The rotating member of an electrical machine
Series Circuit
A circuit in which all parts are connected end to end to provide a single path of current
Volt
The unit of potential difference symbolized as V
Voltage
The potential difference measured in volts. The amount of work to be done to move a charge from one point to another along an electric circuit
Accuracy
The condition or quality of being true, correct, or exact; precision; exactness.
Assembly
A group of machined or handmade parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit.
Brainstorming
A group technique for solving problems, generating ideas, stimulating creative thinking, etc., by unrestrained spontaneous participation in discussion
Component
A part or element of a larger whole
Consensus
A general agreement.
Constraint
A limit to a design process. Constraints may be such things as appearance, funding, space, materials, and human capabilities.
Decision Matrix
A tool for systematically ranking alternatives according to a set of criteria.
Design Brief
A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints.
Design Modification
A major or minor change in the design of an item, effected in order to correct a deficiency, to facilitate production, or to improve operational effectiveness.
Design Process
A systematic problem-solving strategy, with criteria and constraints, used to develop many possible solutions to solve a problem
Design Statement
A part of a design brief that challenges the designer, describes what a design solution should do without describing how to solve the problem,
Designer
A person who designs any of a variety of things. This usually implies the task of creating drawings or in some way using visual cues to organize work.
Open-Ended
Not having fixed limits; unrestricted; broad
Pictorial Sketch
A sketch that shows an object's height, width, and depth in a single view.
Problem Statement
A part of a design brief that clearly and concisely identifies a client's or target consumer's problem, need, or want.
Purpose
The reason for which something is done or for which something exists.
Sketch
A rough drawing representing the main features of an object or scene and often made as a preliminary study.
Solid Modeling
A type of 3D CAD modeling that represents the volume of an object, not just its lines and surfaces
Target Consumer
A person or group for which product or service design efforts are intended.
Team
A collection of individuals, each with his or her own expertise, brought together to benefit a common goal.
Axial Stress
A force with its resultant passing through the centroid of a particular section and being perpendicular to the plane of the section. A force in a direction parallel to the long axis of the structure
Breaking Stress
The stress required to fracture a material whether by compression, tension, or shear
Compression
When a material is reduced in volume by the application of pressure; the reciprocal of the bulk modulus
Deformation
Any alteration of shape or dimensions of a body caused by stresses, thermal expansion or contraction, chemical or metallurgical transformations, or shrinkage and expansions due to moisture change
Destructive Testing
Test methods used to examine an object, material, or system causing permanent damage to its usefulness
Elastic Limit
Maximum stress that a material will withstand without permanent deformation
Elongation
The fractional increase in a material's length due to stress in tension or thermal expansion
Factor of Safety
The ratio of actual strength to required strength
Failure Point
Condition caused by collapse, break, or bending, so that a structure or structural element can no longer fulfill its purpose
Fatigue
The loss of the load-bearing ability of a material under repeated load application, as opposed to a single load
Hooke's Law
The law stating that the stress of a solid is directly proportional to the strain applied to it
Modulus of Elasticity
The ratio of the increment of some specified form of stress to the increment of some specified form of strain, such as Young's modulus, the bulk modulus, or the shear modulus. Also known as coefficient of elasticity, elasticity modulus, elastic modulus
Nondestructive Testing
Test methods used to examine an object, material, or system without impairing its future usefulness
Problem Solving
The ability to get answers to questions through a conscious, organized process. The answers are usually, but not necessarily, quantitative
Proportional Limit
Point at which the deformation is no longer directly proportional to the applied force. Hooke's Law no longer applies
Quality Control
Operational techniques necessary to satisfy all quality requirements; includes process monitoring and the elimination of root causes of unsatisfactory product or service quality performance
Reliability
The probability that a component part, equipment, or system will satisfactorily perform its intended function under given circumstances, such as environmental conditions, limitations as to operating time, and frequency and thoroughness of maintenance for a specified period of time
Resilience
A mechanical property of a material that shows how effective the material is absorbing mechanical energy without sustaining any permanent damage
Rupture Strength
Nominal stress developed in a material at rupture. Not necessarily equal to ultimate strength. Since necking is not taken into account in determining rupture strength, seldom indicates true stress at rupture
Shear Stress
A measure of how easily a material can be twisted
Standard Deviation
A statistical measurement of variability
Statistics
The collection and analysis of numerical data in large quantities
Strain
Change in the length of an object in some direction per unit
Stress
The force acting across a unit area in a solid material resisting the separation, compacting, or sliding that tends to be induced by external forces
Stress-Strain Curve
Graphical representation of a material's mechanical properties
Tension
The condition of a string, wire, or rod that is stretched between two points
Toughness
Mechanical property of a material that indicates the ability of the material to handle overloading before it fractures
Ultimate Stress
Sometimes referred to as tensile strength; determined by measuring the maximum load a material specimen can carry when in the shape of a rectangular bar or cylindrical can
Variance
The average of the squared differences from the mean
Accuracy
A description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured.
Bar Chart
Categorical data graph.
Bayes' Theorem
The probability of an event occurring based upon other event probabilities.
Data
Numbers or information describing some characteristic.
Data Variation
Measure of data scatter.
Deviation
Amount of difference between a value and the mean.
Experiment
An activity with observable results.
Event
A subset of a sample space.
Frequency Distribution
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
Histogram
Frequency distribution graph.
Mean
Arithmetic average.
Mean Deviation
Measure of variation equal to the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean.
Median
Middle value of a set of values arranged in order of magnitude.
Mode
The value that occurs most frequently.
Normal Distribution
Bell-shaped probability distribution.
Outcome
The result of an experiment.
Pie Chart
A form of graph which represents percentage values as segments of a circle.
Probability
The calculated likelihood that a given event will occur.
Process Control
To monitor and control a process so that the quality of the output/product improves.
Qualitative Data
Values that possess names or labels.
Quantitative Data
Values that represent a measurable quantity.
Quality Assurance
The use of quality control techniques associated with a process.
Reliability
The probability of satisfactory operation of the product in a given environment over a specified time interval.
Sample Space
A set of all possible outcomes or events in an experiment that cannot be further broken down.
Standard Deviation
The square root of the variance.
Statistics
The collection, evaluation, and interpretation of data.
Statistical Process Control
SPC is a method of monitoring, controlling, and ideally improving a process through statistical analysis. Its four basic steps include measuring the process, eliminating variances in the process to make it consistent, monitoring the process, and improving the process to its best target value.
Tolerance
The difference between the maximum and minimum dimensions allowed within the design of a product.
Variance
The difference between samples.
Universal System Model
A flowchart style diagram that can be used to break down any system, natural, social, or technological, into it's different parts.
Input
Something put into a system, such as resources, in order to achieve a result.
Output
The results of the operation of any system.
Process
A series of actions or steps taken to do work with an input
Feedback
Information about the output of a system that can be used to make adjustments.
Goal
The purpose of operating a system
Open Loop System
A system that can not monitor it's own output and has to rely on human feedback to control it.
Closed Loop System
A system that monitors it's operation, compares it to it's programming, and adjusts itself to maintain good operation
Technology
The use of tools, resources, and knowledge to create systems, tools, and techniques to meet a want or need.
Technique
A way of doing something
System
A group of parts working together to achieve a goal
Tool
A device we do work with
Resource
A material or information we do work to
Want
Something we can live and be safe without
Need
Something we would die or be harmed without
Energy and Power Technology
Technology for Generating, Controlling, Storing, and Transmitting Energy
Transportation Technology
Technology for Moving people or cargo from one place to another
Medical Technology
Technology for Preventing, Treating, and Diagnosing Illnesses and Injuries
Agriculture and Bio Technology
Technology for Using and Caring for Organisms from Fungus and Bacteria to Plants and Animals
Construction Technology
Technology for Building Structures
Communication Technology
Technology for Creating, Sending, and Receiving information
Manufacturing Technology
Technology for Planning and Producing items
Technological Impact
The result of using technology
Stone Age
A period of time during which early humans made lasting tools and weapons mainly from stone; the earliest known period of human culture
Bronze Age
A period of time after humans learned to smelt metal. Agriculture and large cities were starting to play a major role in human life
Iron Age
A period of time dominated by the Romans. Steel, roads, and professional engineering were developed.
Middle Age
"Medieval Times" is another name for this period of time. Castles, Sailing ships, and Printing are technologies know from this period
Renaissance
An age of technology where math, science, and art developed at a fast pace. Most basic scientific tools like microscopes or thermometers were develop during this time.
Industrial Revolution
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s
Industrial Age
The period of time after the Industrial Revolution. Many people moved to cities. Machines powered the tools used in the fields and factories.
Information Age
The current technological age brought to us by the Transistor. Information and Electronics that use information dominate our lives.
diode
A device that permits current to flow through it in only one direction.
transistor
A small electronic device used in a circuit to amplify a current or switch a current on/off.
servo motor
a motor that can be positioned within a given angle range using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
signal wire
the wire used to send voltage to a component to make it work or to receive information from a sensor for the Arduino to interprete
dc motor
small electric device that converts direct current electricity into mechanical motion
transistor collector
on a transistor, it is the positive lead where you supply voltage to run a component
transistor base
on a transistor, it is the lead where you supply the single to control the transistor
transistor emitter
on a transistor, it is the negative lead where you connect the component
Arduino library
a collection of functions that are specific to a connect component
#include
the code use to add a library to a program
piezo element
a component that vibrates when electricity is passed through it.
pullup resistor
a resistor used to connect a component to a positive voltage so it can used that voltage as a baseline
pushbutton
a button that you push
floating voltage
a voltage that is created in a circuit that is unregulated and can confuse programming or damage components
Light Emitting Diode
A diode that will produce light when current flows through it.
Resistor
An electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current
Jumper Wire
used to establish connections between the central micro controller and other devices such as buttons and sensors.
Breadboard
A circuit board for wiring temporary circuits, usually used for prototypes or laboratory work.
Ground
common return path for electric current, another name for the negative connection point
Arduino
the micro controller development board that will be at the heart of your projects. It's a simple computer, but one that has no way for you to interact with it yet. You will be building the circuits and interfaces for interaction, and telling the micro controller how to interface with other components.
Pins
where you plug wires into on the arduino
Code Comment
lines in the program that are used to inform yourself or others about the way the program works. They are ignored by the compiler, and not exported to the processor
Setup Function
Called when a sketch starts. Use it to initialize variables, pin modes, start using libraries, etc
Loop Function
does precisely what its name suggests, and loops consecutively, allowing your program to change and respond
digitalWrite
Allows you to send or not send voltage to a pin
delay
Pauses the program for the amount of time (in miliseconds) specified
Array
a collection of variables that are accessed with an index number.
Variable
A symbol used to represent a quantity that can change
Function
allows a programmer to create modular pieces of code that perform a defined task and then return to the area of code from where it was called
Anode
The positive pole on a electronic component
Cathode
The negative pole on a electronic component
Schematic
A diagram that uses symbols to represent components of a system.
Wellness
All the activities that we do to stay healthy. Taking medicine, doing a treatment, or exercising are examples
Exercise
is when you exert you mind or body
Anaerobic Exercise
intense, short bursts of activity in which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen
Aerobic Exercise
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
Diagnose
Use questions, observations, and machines to determine illness
Treatment
Use chemicals, surgery, activity, and machines to limit illness or cure it
Prevention
Use chemicals, surgery, activity, and machines to keep illness away
X-Ray Machines
Shoots excited particles through your body onto a sensitive sheet that is develop to see solid objects in your body
Telemedicine
the diagnosis and treatment of patients in remote places using video conferencing, internet connect medical devices, and file sharing.
Medical Specialist
A doctor who focuses on one system of the body
Primary Care
A medical doctor who provides physical checkups and general care.
Agriculture
the science of producing food, either a crop(plants) or animal, on a large scale to feed many people
Biology
The study of life
Agricultural Technology
the use of tools, resources, and knowledge to create better way of growing crops(plants) and animals at a large scale
Biotechnology
The use of tools, resources, and knowledge to manipulate living organisms or their components to produce useful products.
Hydroponics
Form of agriculture in which farmers grow plants by exposing their roots to a nutrient-rich water solution instead of soil.
Technology
the use of tools, resources, and knowledge to solve problems
Physical Model
Something built to demonstrate what a system, object, or design will look or feel like
Crop
plants grown on a farm
Photosynthesis
The process, powered by the sun, that plants use to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical energy the plant needs. This process releases oxygen
Plant Respiration
When a plant uses up some of it's chemical energy and releases carbon monoxide
residential construction
Building new homes or dwelling places.
commercial construction
Building businesses, offices, and skyscrapers.
industrial construction
building and remodeling of manufacturing facilities, power plants, and related structures.
public works
projects such as highways, parks, and libraries built with public funds for public use.
Truss
An assembly of structural members joined to form a rigid framework, usually connected to form triangles.
Span
The open space under a bridge which it is designed to cross.
Compression
the squeezing force.
Tension
the pulling force.
Torsion
the twisting force.
Shear
the sliding force.
Dead Load
The weight of the structure or structural components, no furniture, people, machines, or objects are in the structure.
Scale Drawing
a drawing that uses a scale to represent an object as smaller or larger than the real world object. Uses the formula: scale ratio = drawing length / actual length
Joint
place where truss member connect together
Truss Member
the pieces of wood, metal, or other materials that make up a truss and distribute the load
Gusset Plate
Metal or wooden plates used to connect and strengthen the joints of two or more separate components
Suspension Bridge
Bridge type characterized by towers and a deck suspended by suspenders attached to cables that are secured to anchorages.
Cantilever Bridge
type of beam bridge which gets support from counter balanced beams meeting in the middle. Requires lots of materials to carry heavy loads, can get expensive.Virtually indestructible.
Cable stay Bridge
Has one or more towers, from which cables support the bridge deck
Load
The forces acting on the bridge
Technology
The use of tools, resources, and knowledge to meet a want or need.
Communication Technology
Technology that is use to send, receive, encode, decode, store, or retrieve information.
Graphics
anything used to communicate visually be it text, stylize text, graphs, maps, illustrations, or shapes
Encode
When a sender (human or machine) translates a piece of information from one language into another so it can be understood by that next part of the communication system
Decode
When a receiver (human or machine) translates a piece of information into a language it can understand.
Sender
One of the main parts of a communication system, this part creates and transmits the message
Message
One of the main parts of a communication system, this part is the information that is being sent
Reciever
One of the main parts of a communication system, this part is the destination of the information
Information
Facts, Opinions, or Emotion that is handled by a communication system
Room Tone
The sound present in a room or location before human noise
Audacity
Free audio editing software
MP4
mpeg 4; a compressed file format that can be used for audio or video; appropriate for streaming
720p
A form of HD video set to 1280x720
1080p
A form of HD video set to 1920x1808 pixels
Video Resolution
a measure of the clarity of an image, measure of the ability of a video camera to reproduce fine detail
Bitrate
the amount of data transferred per second as a video/audio plays. high amount of this = better quality video
Voiceover
Narration which is added after filming and is not in sync with the action.
Video Clip
A small part of a larger video
Clipping
Occurs when the input volume of the audio being recorded goes beyond the capacity of Audacity. As a result that part of the recording will be missing from the track. This can distort the audio output by leaving small gaps in the playback.
Audio Track
One line of audio. You can add more of these lines, and all of them will be mixed together to create your final output, but during editing you can manipulate each line of audio independently.
Chroma Key
a technique for superimposing one video image onto another; most common chroma key colors are blue and green
Video Transistion
An animated effect that controls how one clip is removed from the screen and the next one appears in a video
Scrubbing
when a user drags a cursor or playhead across the video or audio track to play it back slowly or position the playhead on a frame.
Playhead
the vertical marker(usually a line) in the timeline that marks the progress of the video or audio when it is previewed in the editing program.
Timeline
Panel used to place video, images, and sounds on tracks.
Manufacturing Engineer
these people find ways to eliminate wastefulness in production processes. They create efficient ways to use workers, machines, materials, information, and energy to make a product or provide a service at a lower cost.
Web Developer
these people design and create websites. They are responsible for the look of the site. They are also responsible for the site's technical aspects, such as performance and capacity, which are measures of a website's speed and how much traffic the site can handle. They also may create content for the site.
Data Communication Analyst
these people design and build data communication networks, including local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and intranets. These networks range from a small connection between two offices to a multinational series of globally distributed communications systems.
Cover Letter
a document that introduces yourself, explains what job position you are looking for, describes your skills, and thanks a potential employer for their consideration
Resume`
a document that states the job position you are looking for, gives a historical record of your education, training, and employment. It may also include reference contacts and special interests.
Occupational Outlook Handbook
A guide published by the Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, detailing hundreds of jobs, their requirements, and their future possibilities
Career
An occupation that you enjoy for a significant period of your life and with opportunities for progress.
Citation
Giving credit to the authors of source information and formatted using one of the many sets of rules.
Bibilography
A list of the citations you used to help create a document that you researched.
Salary
A fixed amount of money you earn, no matter how many hours you worked.
Job
work you do to make money even if you don't like the tasks.
air transportation
a mode of transportation using aircraft to move people and cargo to their destinations
cargo
materials or products carried on transportation vehicles
control
a subsystem enabling a vehicle to change speed and direction
guidance
a subsystem to a transportation vehicle that receives information needed to operate the vehicle
intermodal transporation
a system of travel using more than one transportation system. For example, an air traveler may use land transportation to get to the airport and an escalator or people mover to get to the plane.
land transportation
a transportation system operating on or beneath the earth's surface
load
the physical placement of cargo and people on a vehicle
propulsion
a vehicle subsystem the provides the means to move a vehicle
route
an invisible path determining the way of travel from one place to another
shipping lanes
a sea lane. The regular route ships take over the water.
space transportation
a new mode of transportation that uses unmanned and manned flights to explore the universe.
structure
a vehicle subsystem that provides a rigid framework to protect the vehicle's contents and support other systems
transportation
the movement of people and materials from one place to another
water transportation
transportation through, and supported by, water. This includes ships, sailboats, rafts, barges, tugboats, and submarines.
periapsis
The point in the path of an orbiting body at which it is nearest to the body that it orbits.
apoapsis
The point in the path of an orbiting body at which it is farthest away from the body that it orbits.
Thrust to Weight Ratio
The comparison of how much thrust a propulsion system produces to the weight of the vehicle. Thrust to Weight Ratios less than one mean the vehicle won't move.
Thrust
The pushing or pulling force exerted by the engine of an aircraft or rocket
Orbiting
travelling in a circular or nearly circular path around another object
Trajectory
the path followed by a projectile flying or an object moving while being pulled on by other forces
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can be converted from one form to another.
Thermal energy
heat, is the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within substances
Radiant energy
is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. It is the only energy form that can flow through empty space.
Electrical energy
energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor.
Mechanical energy
energy stored in the movement of objects
Chemical energy
is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules.
Nuclear energy
is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom — the energy that holds the nucleus together.
Non Renewable Energy
a source of energy that exsists in limited quantities and once used, cannot be replaced except over the course of millions of years
Renewable Energy
Any source of energy that can be continually produced and is inexhaustible given current conditions.
Power Systems
A system that processes a source of energy and operates a load.
Load
A system that requires energy to do it's work.
Sankey Diagrams
picrotrial representations of energy conversions; an arrow (left to right) repersents the energy changes taking place; the width of the arrow represents the power or energy involved at a given stage; degraded energy is shown with an arrow up or down
turbine
Any machine that converts kinetic energy into mechanical (rotational) energy.
generator
Any machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
wind mill
A machine that uses the wind's energy to mill grain.
wind turbine
A machine that uses the wind's energy to create electricity.
nacelle
The "box" behind a wind turbine's blades contains the wind turbine's instrumentation cluster, gear box, and generator.
multimeter
An instrument that can measure useful electrical quantities such as voltage, current, resistance.
breadboard
A device that allows one to connect wires without soldering.
Ohm's Law
Ohm's Law is the equation V=IR and relates voltage, current, and resistance in simple circuits.
Faraday's Law of Induction
This law states that when a changing magnetic flux passes through a coil of wire, a voltage will be induced across that wire.
Blades
Structures connected to a central hub that are pushed by the wind causing them to rotate. They commonly have an airfoil shape with the curve on the back.
Tower
Structure that holds turbine and nacelle in the air stream
Air foil
an object such as an airplane wing or a bird wing with one flat side and one curved side. This causes a pressure difference with low pressure on the curved side and high pressure on the flat side. This produces a lifting force.
Vector
A quantity that involves both magnitude and direction.
Scalar
A quantity that does not involve direction.
Displacement
A net distance traveled including direction; An objects change in position.
Two-Dimensional Vectors
Vectors that lie flat in a plane and can be written as the sum of a horizontal vector and a vertical vector.
Unit Vectors
Special vectors that have a magnitude of 1. These include horizontal basis vector, i, and vertical basis vector, j.
Position
An objects location in a certain space.
Newton's First Law
An object will continue in its state of motion unless compelled to change by a force impressed upon it. Also called Law of Inertia
Inertia
An object's natural resistance to changes in their state of motion.
Newton's Second Law
Predicts what will happen when an unbalanced force does act on an object: the object's velocity will change / the object will accelerate.
Newton's Third Law
To ever action, there is an equal but opposite reaction.
Weight
The gravitational force exerted on an object by the Earth (or by whatever planet it happens to be on).
Normal Force
The component of the contact force that is perpendicular to the surface. (When an object is in contact with a surface, the surface exerts a contact force on the object.)
Friction Force
The component of the contact force that is parallel to the surface. (When an object is in contact with a surface, the surface exerts a contact force on the object).
Static Friction
A type of friction that occurs when there is no relative motion between the object and the surface (no sliding).
Kinetic Friction
A type of friction that occurs when there is relative motion (when the surface is sliding).
Coefficient of Friciton
Represents the nature of surfaces.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can not just appear out of nowhere nor can it disappear in a closed system; it must always take on another form.
Work
The application of force over a distance and the resulting change in energy of the system that the force is acted on.
Total Mechanical Energy
The sum of an object's kinetic and potential energies.
Power
The rate at which work gets done, or energy gets transferred.
Impulse
The product of force and the time during which it acts.
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
Another way of writing Newton's Second Law. (Written J = change in momentum)
Momentum
A vector quantity given by p = mv
Uniform Circular Motion
When an objects speed around its path is constant.
Centripetal Acceleration
When the acceleration vector points toward the center of the circle. The thing that turns the velocity vector to keep the object traveling in a circle.
Newton's Law of Gravitation
Any two objects in the universe that exert and attractive force on each other - called the gravitiational force - whoes strength is proportional to the product of the object's masses and
Kinematics
The mathematical tools for describing motion in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
Potential Energy
The energy of an object or system has by virtue of its position of configuration.
Total Mechanical Energy
The sum of an objects kinetic and potential energies.
Law of Conservation of Total Energy
K(initial)+U(Initial) = K(final)+U(final)
Elastic Collision
A type of collision in which the objects bounce perfectly off each other in opposite directions. Kinetic Energy is conserved. Momentum is conserved.
Inelastic Collision
A type of collision in which the objects travel in the same direction after the collision. Kinetic Energy is lost. Momentum is conserved.
Perfectly Inelastic Collision
The objects stick together and travel in the same direction. Greatest kinetic energy is lost. Momentum is conserved.
Law of Conservation of Momentum
The momentum before equals the momentum after. total p (initial) = total p (final).
Uniform Circular Motion
The objects speed around its path (constant).
Centripetal Force
The force that produces centripetal acceleration. Pulls on object toward the center.
Universal Gravitational Constant
9.81, signified by the capital letter G.
Torque
The measure of a force's effectiveness at making an object spin or rotate.
Translational Equilibrium
Occurs when the sum of the forces acting on an object are zero.
Rotational Equilibrium
If the sum of the torques acting on an object is zero.
Static Equilibrium
State of equilibrium when an object is at rest.
Rotational Inertia
The tendency of an object in motion to rotate until its acted upon by an outside force.
Equilibrium Position
When a spring is neither stretched nor compressed it is said to be in it ___________ ____________.
Hooke's Law
F = -kx
Simple Harmonic Motion
Any vibrating system for which the restoring force is directly proportional to the negative of the displacement is said to exhibit _________________ _______________ ______________.
Amplitude
The maximum displacement from equilibrium.
Period (T)
The amount of time it takes to complete a cycle.
Frequency
The number of cycles that can be completed per unit time.
Simple Pendulum
Consists of a weight of mass attached to a string or a mass-less rod that swings, without friction, about the vertical equilibrium position.
Mechanical Wave
A disturbance transmitted by a medium from one point to another, without the medium its self being transported.
Crests
The points at which the rope has its maximum vertical displacement above the horizontal.
Troughs
The points at which the rope has its maximum vertical displacement below the horizontal.
Transverse Wave
A wave vibrating perpendicular to the direction in which it propagates (travels horizontally).
Superposition (Of Waves)
When two or more waves meet, the displacement at any point of the medium is equal to the algebraic sum of the displacements due to the individual waves.
Constructive Interference
When two waves has displacements of the same sign when they overlap, the combined wave will have a displacement of greater magnitude than either individual wave.
Destructive Interference
When two waves have opposite displacements and meet, the combined waveform will have a displacement of smaller magnitude than either individual wave.
Inphase
When two waves meet and the crest meets the crest and trough meets trough perfectly. These waves constructively interfere and the amplitude of the combined wave will be the sum of the individual amplitudes.
Out of Phase
When two waves meet and the crest of one meets the trough of the other and vice versa. These waves will destructively interfere completely and the amplitude of the combined wave will be the difference between the individual amplitudes.
Standing Wave
The wave oscillates vertically and remains fixed. The crests and troughs no longer travel down the length of the string.
Longitudinal Wave
A wave the travels and oscillates in the same direction. (i.e sound waves)
Intensity
The rate at which sound waves transmit energy, per unit area.
Decibels (dB)
The loudness of sound.
Beat
When two waves interfere constructively, producing an increase in sound level.
Beat Frequency
Equal to the difference between the frequencies of the two combining sounds.
Doppler Effect
The shift in frequency and wavelength that occurs when the source and detector are in relative motion.
Electric Charge
A quality had by protons and electrons that gives them an attractive force.
Charged
Occurs when an imbalance between the numbers of protons and electrons exists.
Coulomb's Law
Electric Field
The presence of charge creates an ___________ ___________ in the space that surrounds it.
Gravitational Field
The space surrounding the Earth a permeated by a ___________ ____________ that's created by the Earth.
Electric Dipole
When two equal but opposite charges form a pair.
Conductors
Materials that permit the flow of excess charge.
Insulators
A material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely.
Superconductor
A material that offers no resistance to the flow of charges.
Ohm's Law
Direct Current
When a current always travels in the same direction through the pathway.
Voltage
The thing that creates current.
Kirchhoff's First Law (The Junction Rule) (The Node Rule)
Says that the total current that enters a junction must equal the total current that leaves the junction.
Kirchhoff's Second Law (The Loop Rule)
Says that the sum of the potential differences (positive and negative) That traverse any closed loop in a circuit must be zero.
Net Force
The single force that could replace all the individual acting on an object and produce the same effect. Forces acting in the same direction add to together to make this.
Restoring Force
Any force that always pushed an object toward an equilibrium position.
Crietria
Goal(s) that the design success is measured against
Constriant
Limitation put on design
Design brief
A document that states the problem, what the design will do to solve it, and constraints on the design
Engineering Design Process
A systematic, iterative problem solving method
Convection
Movement of heat through a fluid
Conduction
Movement of heat through a solid
Radiation
Movement of heat through empty space by electromagnetic waves
Iterative process
a process that can be applied repeatedly with the hope of making improvement to a design
Brainstorm
To come up with as many ideas as possible without worrying about constraints.
Heat
A form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature.
Ablative Barrier
Removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
Analyze
Interpret data to reach conclusions
Engineering
the application of practical & scientific knowledge to a methodical problem solving process.
Mechanics
the branch of physics that deals with the action of forces on bodies and with motion, comprised of kinetics, statics, and kinematics.
Speed
Also, known as velocity, it is a measure of how fast an object is moving. Change in distance over time. v=d/t
Rotational Speed
refers to how fast something is moving in a circle. It is measured in units of angular-distance per time (i.e. degree per second) or rotational cycles per time (i.e. revolutions per minute.) When someone talks about "RPM" they are referencing rotational speed (i.e. when talking about the RPM of a car engine, one is describing how fast the engine in spinning.)
Acceleration
A change in speed over a period of time is described as an acceleration; the higher the acceleration the faster the change in speed. A=v/t^2
Force
an influence that causes a change of movement, direction or shape. Force is measured in units such as Pounds or Newtons. F=M*A
Work
the exertion or effort directed to produce or accomplish something. W=F*d
Power
the rate at which work is performed and energy is converted. P= W/t
Torque
a spinning force. Torque is described by the magnitude of the force multiplied by the distance it is from the center of rotation (Force x Distance = Torque). Torque is measured in units of force*distance, such as Inch-Pounds of Newton-Meters.
Velocity
the rapidity of motion or operation; swiftness; speed.
Actuator
a servomechanism that supplies and transmits a measured amount of energy for the operation of another mechanism or system, like a gripper or launcher
DC Motor
an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity.
Voltage
electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts.
Current
the flow of an electric charge through a material.
Stall
the unexpected or unwanted stopping of an engine or motor
Load
the weight supported by a structure or part

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