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Terms in this set (166)
Nucleic acid is a chain of _____________ that consists of a pentose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
What is a pentose?
type of sugar
What is a phosphate group?
a molecule in the backbone of DNA and RNA that links adjoining base together.
What is a nitrogenous base?
a molecule found in DNA and RNA that encodes the genetic information in cells.
what are the 5 types of Nitrogenous bases?
Which nitrogenous bases found both in DNA and RNA?
while Thymine is unique is unique to DNA and
uracil to RNA
Double helix (DNA) is able to form because_______ ____ bonds are able to form b/w the hydrogen atoms and oxygen or nitrogen atoms between bases in the complementary strands of DNA.
Hydrogen Bond (weak bond)
In DNA adenine always pairs with Thymine, and Guanine always pairs with cytosine
Salivary amylase, salivary Lipase
Gastric Lipase, pepsin(ogen). HCI
Hormones: Gastrin, Ghrelin
Bile (stored in gall bladder)
Pancreatic juice (bicarbonate, lipase, trypsin(ogen), protease, and amylase)
Hormones: Secretin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon.
Brush border enzymes (proteases, lactase, disaccharidases)
Hormones: Cholecystokinin, somatostatin, secretin, motilin.
Large-intestine has none enzymes or hormones
A series of muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract.
a mass of food that has been chewed and swallowed
the semifluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestine.
the break down of food by enzymes for absorption
The organ that stores bile
The organ that produces bile, regulates glycogen storage, and performs other bodily functions.
also known as colon, where water and vitamins are absorbed before feces is stored prior to elimination.
The gland of the digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin and secretes pancreatic juices.
The valve through which chyme passes through stomach to duodenum
Blood vessel that carries nutrients directly from small intestine to the liver.
Cells that produce acid in the stomach
sensory nerves send messages to the central nervous system.
motor nerves send messages out to the muscles
Involuntary nervous system
controls involuntary actions involving cardiac, and smooth muscle, such as heart rhythm, digestion; and breathing.
Muscles contain long myofibrils made of sarcomere units, each consisting of long strands of proteins called ___________ (thin filaments) and ___________(thick filaments)
Actin (thin filaments)
Myosin (thick filaments)
Autonomic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates unconscious body functions such as breathing, and heart rate.
The structure that allows neurons to pass signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Signals travel chemically
A nerve fiber that carries a nerve impulse away from the the neuron cell body.
What is the primary component of muscles?
The passage that forms the lower part of the uterus
Female sex hormone
Tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus, where the Fertilization of eggs occur.
organ in which eggs are produced for reproduction
The gland in males that controls the release of urine and secretes a part of semen that enhances motility and fertility of sperm.
the pouch of skin that contains testes
the organ that produces sperm
The hormone that stimulates male secondary sexual characteristics
the tube that connects the bladder to the exterior of the body
The duct in which sperm moves from a testicle to the urethra.
where estrogen is primarily made
The integumentary system consists of?
skin, hair, and nails, as well as the sebaceous, sudoriferous, and ceruminous (external auditory canal) glands.
a small gland in the skin which secretes a lubricating oily matter (sebum) into the hair follicles to lubricate the skin and hair.
Sweat can also contain traces of urea, lactic acid, and alcohol
Sweat glands: water, minerals including sodium, chloride, and magnesium are excreted by the sudoriferous glands.
The skin is an important organ in maintaining homeostasis and providing a waterproof barrier between inside of the body and external environment.
secretes hormones into circulatory system
The endocrine glands sends hormones (chemical messengers) through the blood to other organs and tissues in the body to control the function of that organ
for example: the pancreas releases insulin, which signals cells to uptake sugar.
The major gland in the endocrine system, from head down;
and ovaries or testes
small gland near the center of the brain that secretes melotonin. Located near the center of the brain and modulates sleep pattern and seasonal function.
The endocrine gland at the base of the brain that controls growth and development. Also controls thyroids and adrenals, testes and ovaries. right underneath hypothalamus
the gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate. Produces T3 and T4 hormones.
an endocrine gland in the neck that produces parathyroid hormone
The lymphoid organ that produces T-Cells
A gland above the kidney that produces hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, sex hormones. Produces cortisol for stress.
the endocrine system regulates many body functions, including
blood production, appetite, reproduction, brain function, sleep cycle, salt-and-water homeostasis, growth, sexual development, and response to stress and injury.
How a gland sends a message.
The gland synthesizes a hormone, which is released into the blood, The hormone then attaches to a receptor in or on the target gland or tissue to initiate a response.
composed of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Kindeys are primarily responsible for filtering ______, creating urine, stabilizing water balance, maintaining blood pressure, and producing the active form of Vitamin D.
The kidney is divided into two major regions the ____________, and the _______________
cortex, and the Medulla
The functional unit of kidney is __________, responsible for filtering and excretion.
The ___________ system pumps blood into the kidneys through the renal artery. The pressure of the blood helps the glomerulus filter out wastes and return vital nutrients to the blood through the renal vein.
The kidneys also produce remin, a hormone that regulates blood pressure by retaining or removing water and salt.
the two branches of abdominal aorta that supply the kidneys.
the outer layer of the kidney
the innermost part of the kidney
they center of the kidney where urine collects before moving to ureter
a vein carrying blood from a kidney to the inferior vena cava.
an enzyme released by the kidney when reduced blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries.
The main nitrogenous part of the urine
Protects the body from disease causing agents. There are two major components of the immune system in vertebrates: innate and adaptive (or acquired) immune system. DO NOT confuse the innate immune system with passive.
The immune system functions through interactions with several other systems through which pathogens can enter the body via _________ ________.
These lymph nodes contain large number of antigen-presenting cells that can trigger the adaptive immune system.
Adaptive Immune system
A kind of passive or active immunity in which antibodies to a particular antigen are present in the body.
Respond to specific antigens
- Cytotoxic T-cells kill pathogen
- Activated by antigen and helper T-cells
- Helper T-cells are activated by APC
- B-cells produce antibodies
Innate Immune System
A collection of nonspecific barriers and cellular responses that serve as inborn first and second line of defense against pathogens.
secretions (acid, salt, NK lymphocytes
enzymes) Phagocytes (APC)
a blood protein that counteracts a specific anitgen
Innate Immune System
- Dendritic Cells
- NK cells
- Toll like receptors
- Antimicrobial proteins
- Physical barriers
- Chemical secretions
Adaptive Immune System
- Cytotoxic T-cells
- Plasma cells
- Memory cells
- Helper T-cells
Substances on the surfaces of agents that act to identify them, to the body, as being native or foreign.
Antigen presenting cell (APC)
a cell that displays foreign antigens with major histocompatibility complexes on their surface.
A substance that kills or inhibits growth of micro organisms with minimal damage to the host
Lymphocytes that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens
a divider between parts of the body.
The group of proteins in blood serums and plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particular antigens
Antigen-presenting cells that process antigens material and present it to T-cells
A large white blood cell that ingests foreign material
A lymphocyte that responds to an antigen upon reintroduction
ingestion of particles by a cell or phagocyte
a white blood cell that produces a single type of antibody
White blood cells that mature in the thymus and participate in immune response.
Brittle bone disease
a group of diseases that affect collagen and result in fragile bones
Microscoping canals in ossified bone
tough, elastic connective tissue found in parts of the body like the ear.
The primary structural protein of connective tissue
Channels in bone that contain blood vessels and nerves
Layers of bone, tissue, or cell walls
Flattened bone cells that come from osteoblast
Degenerative joint disease
Cells that make bone
cells that remove bone
Cylindrical structures that comprise compact bone
A disease that causes brittle fragile bones
A progressive disease that causes joint inflammation and pain.
Channels in bone that transmit blood vessels and communicate with Haversian canal.
have long compact shafts containing marrow. The ends are usually made of spongy bone with air pockets.
Examples of long bone
are wider than they are long. The bones of the toes (metatarsals) and collarbone (clavicle) are short bones.
are not hollow but contain marrow.
ribs, and sternum
have non symmetrical shapes and include the bones of skull, knee, and elbow.
bones are articulated to other bones through ligaments, and bones are articulated to muscle through tendons.
Osteoclasts solubilize bone with acid secretions and cause minerals to be resorbed from bone in response to hormonal signals
a molecule that contains a large number of atoms
Molecules that can bond to similar or identical molecules to form a polymer.
Imagine if monomer were beds and polymer was a whole necklace of beads.
A substance composed of similar units bonded together
Sugars and starches, which the body breaks down into glucose
Fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water
long molecules made of nucleotides DNA and RNA
Molecules composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
Important class of proteins that catalyze biochemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction. Enzymes speed up reaction by lowering the energy required by the system to initiate the reaction.
CHROMOSOMES, GENES, AND DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
is a macromolecule that contains coded instructions for the body to produce proteins. It is composed of 4 nucleotide letters: A (adenine), T (thymine), G (guanine), and C (cytosine).
These letters are arranged in three-letter combinations to make 64 possible "words" called __________.
A __________ is a "sentence" made of a specific order of codons that produces a protein.
A _____________ is a "chapter" linking sentences with "punctuation marks" that regulate where a gene starts and ends, and which genes are read in which cell.
The information is always coded in DNA in the 5' to 3' direction, so this strand is called "sense" strand. When copying DNA during replication and when transcribing DNA to make messenger RNA, the 3' to 5' "anti-sense" strand is used as template for building a sense strand.
one of the two duplicates of chromosome formed during the cell cycle.
A structure made of protein and one molecule of DNA
The sugar portion of a deoxyribose nucleotide
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The material that contains genetic info
A string of DNA that is the basic unit of heredity
A type of non-covalent bond; a weak attraction between a hydrogen atom bound to an electronegative atom and a second highly electronegative atom.
the building block of DNA and RNA
MENDEL'S LAW OF HEREDITY
a phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms
a cross between parents heterozygous at two specific genes
refers to the most powerful trait or the allele for that trait
The genetic makeup of an individual
A physical appearance of a trait formed by genetics and environment
Transmission of characteristics to offspring
Inheritance of traits that follow Gregor Mendels two laws and the principle of dominance
Refers to traits that are masked if dominant alleles are also present; also refers to alleles for that trait.
BASIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE
A negatively charged ion
the most basic complete unit of an element
a positively charged ion
a chemical bond in which electron pairs are shared between atoms
a negatively charged atomic particle
a column of elements in the periodic table
A positively or negatively charged atom or molecule
the bond between two oppositely charged ions
A period in the periodic table represents which of the following?
Increasing energy levels
A chemical bond between two atoms contains which of the following?
PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES
A type of covalent bond in which two atoms share electrons that are not equal distances from their atomic nuclei. If the geometry of the molecule does not equalized the partial charges created by the polar covalent bond, the region of the partial charge remains unbalanced, and the molecule is considered polar.
a type of covalent bond at which two atoms share electrons that are equal distances from their atomic nuclei.
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