Royal Colonies- These colonies were subject to the direct control of the crown. There were 8 in 1775: (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) The king named a governor to serve as the colony's chief executive. A council named by the king served as an advisory body to the governor.
Proprietary Colonies- At the time of the revolution, there were 3 proprietary colonies (Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware). A proprietor was a person to whom the king had made a grant of land. By charter, that land could be settled and governed as much as the proprietor (owner) chose. In 1632 the king granted Maryland to Lord Baltimore, in 1681 he granted Pennsylvania to William Penn, and in 1682 Penn also got Delaware. The government was a lot like royal colonies except the governor was chosen by the proprietor.
Charter Colonies- Connecticut and Rhode Island were charter colonies. They were based on charters granted in 1662 and 1663, to the colonists themselves. They were largely self-governing. The governors were elected by white, male property owners. Many historians believe that if all colonies had been charter colonies, the Revolution might have never occurred.
The earliest attempt at colonial unification was the New England Confederation, which was a "league of friendship" for the defense against Native Americans formed by Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut. When danger from the Indians passed and the settlements began to fight, the confederation lost importance and died in 1684.
Another form of unification was the Albany Plan of Union proposed by Benjamin Franklin. He proposed the formation of an annual congress of delegates from each of the 13 colonies. It would have the power to raise military and naval forces, make war an peace with the Native Americans, regulate trade with them, levy taxes, and collect customs duties. This plan was ahead of its time, but was turned down by the colonies and the Crown.
Another form of unification was formed in protest of new taxes forced on the colonies by the British. It was clued the Stamp Act Congress and delegates from 9 colonies prepared a strong protest called the Declaration of Rights and Grievances against the new British policies and sent it to the king. Even after Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, frictions mounted. Colonies were rebelling against the Crown and started to boycott English goods.
In the First Continental Congress, every colony was represented except Georgia. The members discussed the worsening situation between the colonies and the British. They sent a Declaration of Rights which protest Britain's policies to King George III.
In the Second Continental Congress, all colonies were represented. John Hancock was president of Congress, GW was commander of army. The Second Continental Congress became the nation's first national government for 5 years until the Articles of Confederation went into effect.
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy
George C. Edwards III, Martin P. Wattenberg, Robert L. Lineberry
1st EditionGlen Krutz