specific group of atoms most commonly involved in chemical reactions and responsible for most of the characteristic chemical properties and many of the physical properties of a particular organic compound
electrons, an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons; it is determined by the number of electrons
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
Which elements make up the majority of living organisms?
What is the capacity of the following electron shells? L1, L2, L3, L4
L1 = 2
L2 = 8
L3 = 8
L4 = 16
What is meant by Volume when referring to atomic particles?
the distance an electron is from its nucleus
How does carbon-14 differ from carbon-12?
What is the atomic number of each carbon atom?
What is the atomic weight of each?
These are isotopes, which have varied numbers of neutrons around their nuclei. They will always have the same number of protons (6) Carbon-14 has 8 neutrons (=14 - 6); carbon-12 has 6 neutrons.
Carbon-14 atomic number (or proton number) is 6; same for Carbon-12
Carbon-14 atomic weight is (6p+8n=14); Carbon-12 atomic weight 9s (6p+6n=12)
very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule
a unit of measurement used in laboratories, describes the molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams
pathways of synthesis reactions in living organisms,
for example the combining of sugar molecules to form starch; and amino acids to form proteins
("make things bigger")
anabolic reactions or anabolism
pathways of breaking down or decomposition reactions in living organisms,
for example the use of sucrose in the body involves breaking it down into simpler sugars (glucose & fructose)
("break things down")
catabolic reactions or catabolism
What are the properties of water that are important to living systems?
1. Can form 4 hydrogen bonds
2. Excellent Solvent
3. Reactant or Product in many reactions
4. Temperature Buffer
What is meant by "the polarity of water makes it cohesive"?
water is a polar molecule, this property results in a strong attraction between water molecules.
What is meant by "the polarity of water makes it an excellent solvent"?
the negative pole of the water molecule is attracted to the positive pole of other molecules (solutes) and the positive pole is attracted to the negative pole of those same solutes.
This means that substances held together by ionic bonds will tend to dissociate into separate cations and anions in water. The molecules will become surrounded by the water (dissolving it)
What is meant by "water is a reactant or product in many chemical reactions"?
Its polarity facilitates the splitting and rejoining of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-).
What is meant by "water is an excellent temperature buffer"?
the polarity of water gives it relatively strong hydrogen bonds, requiring a great deal of heat to increase its temperature and a great loss of heat to decrease the temp.
why are synthesis reactions also called "condensation reactions"?
they usually include H2O as one of their products
why are decomposition reactions also called "hydrolysis reactions"?
they usually require water to occur
Which of the following is an endergonic and an exergonic reaction?
a) anabolism is an endergonic reaction
b) catabolism is an exergonic reaction
a monomer becomes a polymer via __________
or fill in the blank
monomer __________> polymer
reactions that require water to occur, "burn up" water in the process, water will dissociate into H+ and OH-
the group of elements attached to the carbon skeleton in an organic molecule that is primarily responsible for the chemical properties of that compound
the large and diverse group of organic compounds that include sugars and starches;
contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (hydrogen and oxygen are in a 2:1 ratio)
these fats provide the structure of cell membranes and provide some energy storage; they are water insoluble
chemicals containing 4 interconnected carbon rings, act to separate fatty acid chains and prevent packing that would harden plasma membranes at low temperatures
organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (and somtimes sulfur); they are the essential ingredient to cell structure and function
these bonds are formed through hydration synthesis, and allow for amino acids to link together
the ___ structure of proteins details the shape of 2 or more polypeptide chains in their folded shape
Explain the purpose of doing a slant subculture.
a subculture is a sample of the culture taken from an isolated colony transferred and grown in its own separate container. this allows for easier study and organization of bacterial isolates; also allows you to continue to use the original culture for multiple studies