Zoology1

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Kingdom Animalia
Monophyletic, Multicellular, Heterotrophic, All have blastula stage and collagen
Choanoflagellates
Solitary or colonial aquatic eukaryotes, with each cell carrying a flagellum surrounded by a collar of mircovilli
Phylum Porifera
Sponges
How do sponges feed?
The beating of many tiny flagella, one per choanocyte, draws water past each cell, bringing in food and oxygen, as well as carrying away waste.
Spicules
When present the ridged skeleton consists of calcareous or siliceous support structures
Where does the fibrous part of the sponges skeleton come from?
Collagen protein fibrils in the intercellular matrix of all sponges
Choanocytes
A flagellated "collar cell", that moves water. Line flagellated canals and chambers, are ovid cells with one end embedded in mesohyl and the other is exposed. Form fine filtering device for straining food particles from water
What kind of digestion does Phylum Porifera have?
Intracellular
Archaceocytes
Ameboid cells that move in the mesohyl and perform a number of functions.
Pinacoytes
Thin, flat, epithelial-like cells that cover the exterior surface and some interior surfaces of a sponge
Somatic Embryogenesis
If a sponge is cut into small pieces or a piece is cut off an entire new sponge can develop from these fragments or aggregates of cells.
Asexual reproduction in Sponges
Regeneration following fragmentation or bud formation
External Buds
After reaching a certain size a sponge may become detached from the parent and float away to form new sponges or remain and form colonies
Internal Buds or Gemmules
Formed in freshwater sponges, when parent animal dies during periods of freezing or drought these survive and remain dormant until they later escape through the microphyles and develop into new sponges
Sexual Reproduction In Sponges
Most sponges are monoecious, release sperm and egg in water or free-swimming larva
Ostia
Small pores, incurrent valve, has many
Oscula
Large holes, fewer, out current
Osculum
Where water exits the body when filtering it through the body
Spongocoel
Large chamber in the sponge body
Prosopyles
Internal pores in a sponges body
Apopyles
In sponges, opening of the radial canal into the spongocoel
What kind of symmetry does Phylum Porifera have?
Asymmetrical; Radial or none
What are the three types of cells in the sponges body?
Choanocytes, Archaeocytes and Pinacocytes
Is the Phylum Porifera diploblastic or triploblastic?
Diploblastic
Phylum Cnidaria
Sea anemones, Jellyfish, Corals
Is the Phylum Cnidaria diploblastic or triploblastic?
Diploblastic
Cnidocytes
Contain organelles (cnidae), unique cell type
Nematocysts
Type of cnida, used to inject a toxin for prey capture and defense
What are the two morphological types of Phylum Cnidaria?
Polyps and medusa
Polyp
Adapted to a sedentary or sessile life
Medusa
Jellyfish form, adapted for free floating or free-swimming existence. Bell or umbrella shaped bodies
Gastrovascular Cavity
Blind gut of a polyp
How do polyps reproduce?
Asexually through budding, fission, or pedal laceration
Polymorphism
Occurs when a single genotype can express more than one body form
Fission
The individual divides in half as one side of the polyp pulls away from the other side
What are the two sensory structures of Medusae?
Statocysts and Ocelli
Life Cycle of Phylum Cnidaria
A zygote develops inro a motile planula larva, the planula settles on a hard surface and metamorphoses into a polyp
Gastrodermis
Lines gut cavity of Cnidaria, functions for digestion
Outer Epidermis
Derived from ectoderm, cnidarian body
Cnidocil
Modified cilium, trigger like
Class Hydrozoa
Have a life cycle that includes both an asexual poll and sexual medusa
Hydrorhiza
Base by which colonial hydroids attach to the substratum is a root like stolon
Hydocauli
Stalks that arise from hydrorhiza
Perisarc
Protective covering of the hydrocaulus is a non living chitinous sheath
What type of digestion does Phylum Cnidaria have?
Extracellular
Statocysts
Small organs of equilibrium in Cnidaria
Ocelli
Light sensitive organs in Cnidaria
Hypostome
Mouth of a hydra, encircled by 6-10 hollow tentacles that can extend to capture prey
Gastrovascular cavity
Part of digestion, Communicates with the cavities in the tentacles, discharge enzymes on the food
Does Phylum Cnidaria have a complete or incomplete digestive system?
Incomplete
What does the Ectoderm give rise to in Cnidaria?
Epidermis
What does the Endoderm give rise to in Cnidaria?
Gastrodermis
What type of reproduction does Cnidaria have as a Polyp?
Asexual and sometimes sexual
What type of reproduction does Cnidaria have as a Medusae?
Sexual
Class Anthozoa
"Flower animals", Anemones, corals, sea fans and sea pens
What life cycle stages does Class Anthozoa have?
Polyp only
How do Sea Anemones feed?
Tentacles surround the mouth, nematocysts
Corals
Similar to small anemones, secrete calcium carbonate, colonial, often with zooxanthellae
Phylum Ctenophora
Comb jellies, most luminsecent
Is the Phylum Ctenophora diploblastic or triploblastic?
Diploblastic
Coelom
The body in triploblastic animals
Does Phylum Ctenophora have a complete or incomplete digestive tract?
Complete
What type of symmetry does Phylum Ctenophora have?
Bi-radial
Does Phylum Ctenophora have intracellular or extracellular digestion?
Both
Excretion
Elimination of nitrogenous, metabolic waste
Protonephridium
Type of Nephridium, closed at inner end, seen in flatworms and other invertebrates
Flame Cell
Creates current with flagella, forces fluid down tube, nutrients are reabsorbed, out excretory pore
Metanephridium
Tube open at both ends, fluid enters funnel, nutrients reabsorbed, out excretory pore, seen in annelids mulluscs
Closed Circulatory Systems
Blood never leaves vessels, Heart pumps blood through arteries, arterioles and capillaries
Cutaneous Respiration
Gas exchange across body wall, Happens in single celled organisms
Gills/Branchia
Highly vascularized extensions in aquatic organisms, Can have external or internal gills
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