Zoology2

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simple squamous epithelial
single layer of flat cells
lines lungs and blood vessels
found in thin barriers
exchange nutrients, waste, gases
simple cuboidal epithelial
-lining of kidney, ovarian glands, salivary glands
-cells perform excretion and absorption
simple columnar epithelial
-digestive, uteran lining
-single layer of elongated, rectangular cells
-absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other nutrients
stratified squamous epithelial
-protect against impact, abrasion, radiation, desiccation, and infection
-skin
Connective Tissues
-bind organs together, hold organs in place, support body structures, and store nutrients
-tendons, cartilage, fat, blood, and bone
Cartilage
-widely spaced cells within a gelatinous, glycoprotein matrix
-firm, but flexible support
lacunae
hollow chambers inside matrix of cartilage
chondrocytes
-cartilage producing cells
-no direct blood supply
-exchange oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and waste with surrounding blood vessels by diffusion through the gelatinous matrix
-reside within lacunae
hyaline cartilage
-cushions the surfaces of joints
-between bone
-intercellular matrix composed of chondrin with thin collagen fivers to provide support and suppleness
elastic cartilage
-contains fine collagen fibers and numerous elastic fibers that provide greater elasticity
-ear, nose, voice box
-more flexible than hyaline cartilage
bone
-specialized structural support
-stores calcium that can be withdrawn
-produces red blood cells in bone marrow
osteocytes
-bone producing cells
-secrete hard, calcified matrix which forms lamellae
lamellae
-thin concentric layers that give bone characteristic appearance
-form layered rings around Haversian canals
Haversian canals
narrow paths contain blood vessels and nerves that exchange nutrients and waste
cannaliculi
form mini canal system linking neighboring osteocytes
Adipose tissue
-type of connective tissue that stores food in the form of fat droplets
-large, oil filled vacuole
-insulation
-cushions organs
-adults have fixed number of fat cells, can't lose them, only shrink them
Loose connective tissue
-loosely scattered cells surrounded by a clear, gelatinous matrix
-found beneath skin, surrounding capillaries
fibroblasts
-cells that secrete collagen and other fibrous proteins
dense connective tissue
-tightly packed collagen fibers
-stronger than loose connective
-regular vs irregular
regular dense connective tissue
-long, parallel, tightly packed collagen
-tendons and ligaments
Blood
-fluid connective tissue
-extracellular matrix: plasma
-transportation, heat distribution, clotting, protects against disease
erythrocytes
-mammalian red blood cells
-oxygen, carbon dioxide transport
leukocytes
-white blood cells
-immune response
-contain distinct purple nuclei
nuetrophils
-leukocytes
-principal phagocytic cells in blood
-about twice the size of red blood cell
-nuclei with 2-5 distinct lobes
basophil
-leukocytes
-2x size of red blood cell
-unlobed nuclei
-granular appearance
-help blood from inappropriately clotting within blood vessel
eosinophils
-leukocytes
-play role in allergic response
-defend against parasites
-nuclei usually have 2 lobes
lymphocyte
-leukocytes
-spherical nuclei that almost completely fill interior of cell
-produce antibodies and destroy foreign cells
monocyte
-leukocytes
-largest of white blood cells
-enlarge and become macrophages
-scavenger cells that engulf bacteria, dead cells, and debris
platelets
-fragmented cytoplasm from megakaryocyte (in bone marrow)
-aid in clotting
muscular tissue
contract and create movement
smooth muscle
simplest type of muscle tissue
lack striations
bladder, uterus, stomach, blood vessels
contractions are slow and rhythmic
skeletal muscle
-long, unbranched muscle fibers
-composites of many individual muscle cells
-attached by tendons to bones
-appear to be multinucleated
-striated appearance caused by alignment of actin and myosin filalments
Cardiac muscle
-striated
-walls of the heart
-not under voluntary control
-connected by intercalated disks(gap junctions)
-contract to pump blood
Nervous tissue
-reception of stimuli
-impulses from region to region
-composed of neurons and glial cells
neurons
function units of nervous system
axon
transmits electrical impulses away from the cell body
dendrites
short extensions that receive electrical impulses from neighboring neurons or sensory receptors to the cell body
Glial cells
assist in propagating nerve impulses and provide a nutritive role for neurons
homeostasis
maintenance of physical and chemical balances within specific species limits for an individual
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
all systems tend towards entropy
regulator
uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change
conformer
allows internal condition to vary with external changes
mechanisms of homeostasis
sensor: detects change in internal environment
regulatory center: activates effector
effector: reverses change and brings conditions back to normal
negative feedback loops
primary mechanism that keeps variable close to a set point
Glucose Levels
-cells need exact level in blood
-excess glucose turned into glycogen in liver
-regulated by hormones: insulin and glucagon
4 realms of homeostasis
-thermal balance
-water ion balance
-oxygen carbon dioxide balance
-energy balance
Thermal balance
-each animal has optimal temperature range
-thermoregulation or thermoconformer
ectotherms
-most invertebrates, fish, reptiles, amphibians
-thermo conformers
-regulate temperature by behavior
endotherms
-mammals and birds
-thermoregulators
-80% of expended energy is for generating/ maintaining body temp
-more food per gram of body weight
-expensive and relatively rare
-use behavior for thermoregulation
insulation
hair, feathers, fat reduces heat loss
evaporative heat loss
sweat glands stimulated to release liquid
osmotic conformer
inside organism is same water/ion balance as environment
stenohaline: can't tolerate change well
osmotic regulator
internal balance can vary greatly
ethology
study of animal behavior
behavior
-response to internal/ external stimuli based on sensory, neural, endocrine, and effector components
-genetic basis
-modified by learning
sensory
information acquiring structures
neural
information evaluation and storage
endocrine
hormonal
effector
muscles and glands
umwelt
environment as organism under study perceive it
ex. sight, smell, hearing, taste, touch, electric fields, geomagnetic fields
Niko Tinbergen 4 questions about behavior
1. what is the mechanism that causes the behavior
2. how does behavior develop?
3. How did the behavior develop?
4. Why does the animal do this behavior?
proximate causation
how a behavior occurs
ultimate causation
why behavior occurs
innate behavior
instinct
fixed action pattern
elicited by specific stimulus
behavior goes to completion
innate reflexes
stereotyped response to a stimulus due to a relatively simple connection from sensory glands
innate taxis
movement with respect to direction of stimulus
-automatic movement toward (positive) and away from (negative) a stimulus
Migration
-can be completely innate, learned, or both
-environmental cues trigger migration
-regular long distance change in location
learned behavior
modification of individual behavior based on prior experience
-ability to learn is inherited
innate vs learned
false dichotomy
continuum
talking
associative learning
associate stimulus w/ consequence
Classical conditioning
Pavlov's dogs
connect reflex behavior to associative stimuli
Operant conditioning
trial and error using reward or punishment
Habituation
loss of response to stimuli that convey little or no info
-crying wolf
enables animals to disregard unimportant stimuli
imprinting
form social attachments at specific critical period in new born's life
-both learned and innate
Super Group Chromalveolata
superphylum Alveolata
-Ciliophora
-Apicomplexa
-Dinoflagellata
all possess small sack like structure just beneath cell membrane (alveolus)
Dinoflagellata
alveoli produce cellulose plates
2 flagella at right angles
most important primary producers in ocean
most species free living
some endosymbionts
responsible for red tides (blooms)
toxic and anoxic conditions
autotrophic, heterotrophic, or both
Apicomplexa
alveoli serve as structural function
parasitic
sessile
rely on host for nutrients and dispersal
life cycle- several hosts
*Plasmodium causes malaria
Ciliophora
alveoli produce pellicle
use of cilia for locomotion and food capture
at least 2 nuclei (micro and macro)
heterotrophs
freshwater
reproduce by conjugation or binary fission
pellicle
stiffens membrane, allows movement through viscous substances
*Vorticella sp.
Ciliophora
sessile
found in stagnant freshwater
attached to aquatic vegetation by stalk
Supergroup Rhizaria
Radiolara (phylum)
Foraminifera (phylum)
Radiolara
SG Rhizaria
test made of silica
oldest known unicellular eukaryotes
fossil records
Foraminifera
SG Rhizaria
test made of CaCO3
marine, warm water
formed limestone and chalk deposits on land
look like snail shells
Supergroup Archaeplastida
Chlorophyta (phylum)
Chlorophyta
*Volvox
*Volvox
unicellular
forms colonies
make cellulose (cell walls)
autotrophic
biflagellated (no reservoir)
Supergroup Unikonta
Amoebozoa
Amoebozoans
unicellular
heterotrophs
lack cell walls
highly specialized
adapted to bottom of lakes/ponds with rich sources of sedentary organic particles
flexible plasma membrane form psuedopodia
*Entamoeba histolytica
can form cysts by secreting proteinaceous cell wall and become dormant
survive dry spells and able to be dispersed by wind
*Naegleria fowleria
cyst survive both hot and cold
brain eating amoeba
*Difflugia
tests from mineral particles that were picked up or eaten
heterotrophs
spherical to elongated shape
(looks like pomegranate on slide)
taxonomy
formal system of naming, describing, and classifying
systematics
study diversity of organisms and history
taxon
any level of classification
Carl Linnaeus
named and classified all living creatures
confusion over common names
Binomial system
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
levels of classification
monophyletic
all descendants of a particular ancestor and no other organisms
paraphyletic
some, but not all descendants of a particular ancestor
polyphyletic
members do not share same common ancestor
homologous traits
traits in different groups that are similar b/c inherited from common ancestor
analogous traits
similar structures w/ separate evolutionary origins
Protozoa
Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
animal like: motile/autotrophic
plant like: sessile/ heterotrophic
fungus like: saprozoic
eukaryotes that are not plants, animal, or fungi
aquatic
mostly unicellular
motile in at least one life stage
typically microscopic
Supergroup Excavata
Diplomonads (phylum)
Euglenozoa (phylum)
Diplomonads
SG EXCAVATA
flagellates
most parasitic
lack mitochondria (mitochondria genes in nucleus, secondary loss)
ex. *Girardia lamblia
Euglenozoa
SG EXCAVATA
flagellum arise from anterior end of cell from reservoir
flexible cell membrane
pellicle for structure
heterotrophic, parasitic, or photosynthetic
asexual, binary fission
*Euglena sp
Euglenozoa (phylum)
flagellum- moves organism through environment
eyespot- photoreceptor provides info to cell about light intensity
one large nucleus
many chloroplasts
contractile vacuole- maintain ospotic balance by pumping water out
*Trypanosoma sp.
phylum Euglenozoa, class Kinetoplastea
parasitic flagellates
movement- undulating membrane or flagellum
single large mitochondria w/ kinetoplast houses extra nuclear DNA
*Paramecium
*Paramecium fission
*Paramecium conjugation
*Plasmodium
fertilization
fusion of egg and sperm into single diploid cell
polyspermy
fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm
lethal
fertilization membrane
membraneous layer over eggs that form after fertilization to prevent additional fertilization
epigenesis
embryo develops progressively from an undifferentiated egg cell
animal pole
portion of ovum that contains the nucleus, less yolk
vegetal pole
portion of ovum that contains mostly yolk, little cytoplasm
holoblastic cleavage
complete cleavage separating the egg
meroblastic cleavage
partial cleavage of the egg
-in eggs that contain a large amount of yolk
indeterminate or regulative cleavage
cleavage resulting in blastomeres of similar developmental potential, each capable, when isolated, of producing an entire embryonic body
determinate or mosaic cleavage
developmental fate of embryos set early
-each blastomere cannot develop fully on its own
blastomere
cell formed by cleavage of a fertilized ovum
morula
a solid ball of cells resulting from division of a fertilized ovum, and from which a blastula is formed.
blastula
embryo at the early stage of development when it is a hollow ball of cells.
blastocoel
fluid filled cavity of a blastula
gastrulation
cells move inward to create 3 layered structure
protostome
organism whose mouth develops from a primary embryonic opening, such as an annelid, mollusk, or arthropod
deuterostome
he first opening (the blastopore) becomes the anus, while in protostomes, it becomes the mouth
gastrula
embryo at the stage following the blastula, when it is a hollow cup-shaped structure having three layers of cells
archenteron
The primary gut that forms during gastrulation in the developing zygote
the digestive tube
It develops into the endoderm and mesoderm of an animal.
blastopore
The opening of the archenteron in the gastrula that develops into the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomes.
yolk plug
remaining patch of endodermal cells that is created during the formation of the dorsal lip of the blastopore. It is a patch of large endodermal cells which remains exposed on the vegetal surface of the amphibian blastula that will eventually be internalized
endoderm
innermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this, which include the lining of the gut and associated structures.
ectoderm
outermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this, which include the epidermis and nerve tissue.
mesoderm
middle layer of an embryo in early development, between the endoderm and ectoderm
diploblastic
having a body derived from only two embryonic cell layers (ectoderm and endoderm, but no mesoderm)
triploblastic
having a body derived from three embryonic cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm)
morphogenesis
the origin and development of morphological characteristics.
organogenesis
production and development of the organs of an animal or plant.

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