52 terms

Midterm Study Guide

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physical change
A change in which the form or appearance changes, but no new substances are formed
example: dissolving salt in water, folding a piece of paper
chemical change
A change in matter that produces one or more new substances
example: burning wood, tarnish on penny
mass
the amount of matter in an object
What tool is used to measure mass
Triple beam balance; unit is grams
volume
the amount of space an object takes up
What tool is used to measure volume
graduated cylinder
How to measure volume of an irregular object
fill a graduated cylinder/ beaker with water. Record how many mL of water are in the graduated cylinder/ beaker. Place object in the graduated cylinder/ beaker. Record how much the water level rose. The difference between water levels is the object's volume.
weight
A measure of the force of gravity on an object
What tool is used to measure weight
Spring Scale
Chemistry
The study of the properties of matter and how matter changes
The study of matter and the changes it undergoes
Density
Mass / Volume
What is matter made up of
Atoms and molecules
How is matter classified
mixture or pure substance
element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
substance
A single kind of matter that is pure and has a specific set of properties.
mixture
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
compound
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
molecule
two or more atoms bonded together that are either the same or different
homogeneous mixture
A mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture; you can't see the different parts
heterogeneous mixture
A mixture in which different materials can be distinguished easily; you can see the different parts
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
physical properties
the characteristics of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance
chemical properties
Characteristics of a substance that determine how it will react with other substances.
characteristic properties
A quality of a substance that never changes and can be used to identify the substance;

properties of matter that are always the same no matter what size the sample is
law of conservation of matter
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical change
khDbdcm
Kilo, Hecto, Deka, base, deci, centi, milli
international system of units
the system of units (SI) used by scientists to measure the properties of matter
hypothesis
an educated guess
independent variable
The experimental factor that is changed; the variable whose effect is being studied.
dependent variable
the variable that is measured in an experiment; the variable that is affected by the independent variable
control group
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.; group that stays the same
water freezes
0 degrees celcius
water boils
100 C
average room temperature
23 degrees celcius
describe a solid
definite shape and volume, atoms are bonded together
describe a liquid
definite volume, takes shape of container, molecules are flowing around each other
describe a gas
no definite volume and no definite shape, molecules are flying around each other
Mendeleev organized the periodic table how
increasing atomic mass
periodic table
an arrangement of elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
The average mass of all the isotopes of an element
isotope
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
From an element's location in the periodic table, you can predict?
Its properties
How is the modern periodic table organized
Increasing atomic number
group
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties; there are 17 groups
period
A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table; there are 8 periods
metals
have a shiny or metallic luster, good conductors of heat and electricity, malleable, ductile
nonmetals
Elements that are poor conductors of heat and electric current, not malleable or ductile, dull and brittle
why are atoms neutral
they have the same number of protons and electrons
noble gases
group 18; nonreactive, found alone in nature; colorless
halogen gases
group 17; highly reactive, colorful, usually bonds with alkali metals
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