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26 terms

L&CB Unit 4 Vocabulary

Chapter 4 vocabulary for L&CB There are 26 vocabulary items, and 67 movement cycles. Mean movement cycles per term is about 2.6. Final Aim: Se term/Sa def -> 26-21 M.C. / min Se def/Sa term -> 40-60 M.C. /min
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intermittent reinforcement
presentation of reinforcing stimulus after less than 100% of either: occurrences of the unconditioned stimulus (US) in the classical procedure, or the occurrences of the response (R) in the operant procedure
(4)
resistance to extinction
the persistence of an environmental-behavior relation after the reinforcing stimulus has been omitted, characteristic of relations that have been intermittently reinforced.
(3)
continuous reinforcement
presentation of reinforcing stimulus after each occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US) in the classical procedure, or after each occurrence of the response (R) in the operant procedure
(3)
cumulative record
graphic display of responding in which responses are cumulated over time, and each response produces an increase in the curve with the passage of time.
(3)
higher-order conditioning
environment-behavior relations selected when acquired elicitors are used as reinforcers in classical procedures
(2)
concurrent schedule
procedures in which more than one response is scheduled for reinforcement
(2)
environmental chaining
formation of a sequence of environment-behavior relations; each relation is maintained by the discriminative stimulus following, bur not necessarily produced by, the preceding response; result of a serial compound conditioning procedure.
(4)
internal reinforcement
activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) by feedback from neural circuits in the frontal lobes, rather than more directly by environmental stimuli; dependent on prior learning
(3)
serial compound conditioning
a classical procedure in which two or more stimuli are successively presented before an eliciting stimulus (US)
(2)
concurrent- chain procedure
an operant procedure in which there are two simultaneously available response options, each of which consists of successive stimuli, with the reinforcer presented after the final stimulus
(3)
behavioral chaining
a formation of a sequence of environment-behavior relations in which each relation is maintained by the discriminative stimulus produced by the preceding response
(3)
over-expectation
a decline in the effect of individual stimuli to evoke a conditioned response after they have been presented in a simultaneous compound followed by the same elicitor that each had been paired with previously
(4)
devaluation
a change in the strength of an environment-behavior relation produced when the reinforcing stimulus that was used to select the relation is later modified in some way
(3)
schedule of reinforcement
a complete description of the environmental and behavioral conditions present when a response is followed by a reinforcer
(2)
fixed-interval (FI) schedule
a contingency during which a response produces a reinforcer only after a fixed period of time has elapsed since the previous reinforced response
(2)
backward chaining
a technique in which the components of a behavioral sequence are added in reverse order to that in which they will ultimately occur
(2)
variable-internal (VI) schedule
a contingency during which a response produces a reinforcer only after a variable period of time has elapsed since the previous reinforced response
(2)
fixed ratio (FR) schedule
a contingency during which a response produces a reinforcer only after a fixed number of repsonses have occurred since the previous reinforced response.
(3)
variable ratio (VR) schedule
a contingency during which a response produces a reinforcer only after a variable number of response have occurred since the previous reinforced response
(3)
matching principle
principle stating that, during a concurrent schedule, the relative frequency of responding on an alternative matches the relative frequency of reinforcers produced by responding on that alternative
(3)
molar principle
a principle, such as the matching principle, that describes the relation between two variables that are defined over a relatively long time interval
(2)
molecular principle
a principle, such as the reinforcement principle, that describes the relation between two variables that are defined over a relatively brief time interval
(3)
appetitive elicitor
a stimulus that evokes an approach response
(1)
aversive elicitor
a stimulus that evokes withdrawal, or escape, responses
(1)
punishing stimulus
an elicitor that reduces the strength of the operant that produces it
(1)
shaping
gradual changes in a respond-reinforcer contingency to select environment-behavior relations whose component responses progressively approximate some criterion response topography
(3)