Microbiology: Module 3
Terms in this set (59)
Which does not apply to the process of anabolism
- products result from the breakdown of large molecules.
- the process is endergonic.
-the process is mediated by enzymes.
-photosynthesis is an example.
products result from the breakdown of large molecules.
-can be anabolic processes.
- may require energy input.
-all of these are true.
- can be exergonic processes.
all of these are true
Which of the following statements about enzyme reactions is TRUE?
-The result of an enzyme reaction is the substrate.
-Enzymes are specific for only one reaction, in one direction.
-The substance acted upon by an enzyme is the product.
-Enzymes are reusable.
Enzymes are reusable.
Heat can destroy bacteria because heat
denatures enzymes by altering their tertiary structures.
Which energy generating reaction occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells?
The Krebs cycle produces all of the following EXCEPT
- NADH and FADH2.
-pyruvate from glucose.
- CO2 molecules.
pyruvate from glucose.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown aerobically in a liquid culture containing glucose. Metabolic products you would expect to find include
-CO2 and H2O
-All of these are found.
All of these are found.
To be used as energy sources, proteins must first
be broken into amino acids.
Which of the molecules CANNOT be used as final electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration?
Pick from the following:
Which of the following statements about fermentation is TRUE?
-Fermentation occurs only in bacterial species.
- It does not require enzymes.
- ATP is not produced
-Intermediary organic compounds are used as electron acceptors.
Intermediary organic compounds are used as electron acceptors.
Which of the following statements about generation time and disease is TRUE?
-If the doubling time is very fast, then chances are the patient will get better faster.
-The slower the generation time, the more symptoms a patient will develop.
-The faster the generation time, the shorter the incubation period.
-None of the above matter, it all depends on how many cells the patient becomes infected with.
The faster the generation time, the shorter the incubation period.
Reproduction and death rates are equal during:
During which stage of growth do bacterial cells cause disease symptoms to appear due to tissue destruction?
What conditions can have the most impact on bacterial growth?
temperature, oxygen and pH
Facultative bacteria can
grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.
A bacterium that can only grow near the bottom of a tube filled with liquid media should be classified as
What is the best way to separate out pure colonies for identification from a unknown mixed sample?
-all of these are possible
-an individual colony can be subcultured onto another agar plate
-the pour plate method of mixing the sample with melted agar, then poured into petri dishes and allowed to harden
-a sterile loop can take a sample and streak for isolation onto an agar plate
all of these are possible
A soil sample is added to a culture medium that has been designed to promote the growth of the genus Histoplasma while inhibiting the growth of bacteria. This test uses a(n)
Which of the following methods is a direct way of counting microbial cells?
standard plate count using a dilution series
Most microbes cannot survive in the stomach because
of its high level of acidity.
__________ requires an input of 2 ATPs in order to produce 4 ATPs.
__________ requires light energy to take place.
Photosynthesis is basically the opposite of __________ respiration.
__________ use chemical reactions for energy and organic compounds as a carbon source.
A type of media in which the exact composition is known is called a(n) __________ media.
Aerobic bacteria require __________ to survive.
Using blood agar plates to test for hemolysis is an example of using a(n) __________ media.
In the streak-plate method to isolate individual colonies, a(n) __________ is used to spread the inoculum across the surface of the plate. (2 word answer)
Competitive inhibition is when the final end product or any molecule binds to a non-active site on the enzyme, the shape of the active site changes and can no longer bind substrate.
The process of photosynthesis is essentially a reversal of the process of aerobic respiration.
Photoautotrophic bacteria cannot use light as an energy source so obtain needed energy from inorganic compounds.
ATP is a perferred source of cellular energy for the chemical reactions of a bacterium.
The generation time is the same for all bacterial species.
Refrigerator temperatures are too cold for the proliferation of bacterial species.
In a complex growth medium, the identity and quantity of each component is known, but in asynthetic medium they are unknown.
The majority of bacterial species do not grow well under laboratory conditions.
Digestion of cellular compounds
Synthesis of cellular compounds
Total of biochemical processes of a cell
both catabolism and anabolism
Cells fed glucose and yielding energy by respiration
Cells fed glucose and yielding energy by fermentation
The metabolism of chemoheterotrophs
both catabolism and anabolism
Photosynthetic reactions that produce glucose
Starch used for generation cellular energy
they do not or cannot use oxygen
they survive in environments where the concentration of oxygen is relatively low
this group requires oxygen for metabolism
they are insensitive to oxygen and still grow when oxygen is present
they grow in either the presence of or a reduced concentration of oxygen
__________ requires light energy to take place.
Distinguish between aerobic vs anaerobic respiration.
The main difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration is the use of oxygen atoms as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport step of cellular respiration. Aerobic respiration uses oxygen while anaerobic respiration uses other inorganic molecules.
Describe what happens at each stage of bacterial growth curve.
-Lag phase: The lag phase is when cells are adjusting to their new environment, they aren't reproducing quit yet.
-Log phase: In the log phase, reproduction is the highest.
-Stationary phase: In the stationary phase, reproduction and cell death are equal
-Death phase: death phase more cells are dying that reproducing.
Even though C. botulinum endospores are durable and ubiquitous in nature, cases of botulism are not extremely common. Why?
C. botulinum spores exist widely in the environment, but they require an anaerobic environment first to germinate and then to produce the botulinum toxin. Proper preparation practices for canned or fermented foods include the use of high temperature over adequate periods of time which eliminates endospores.
What environment did the plastic wrap and airtight jar create, and how did this contribute to the toxin production?
The plastic wrap and airtight jar created an environment that lacks oxygen which is exactly what the C. botulinum needs to produce toxins as it thrives in an anaerobic environment.
The bacterial biofilm that caused Betty's septicemia is likely to return to the surfaces of the teeth. Why?
Because of the sticky extracellular matrix that allows bacteria to attach to the surface and form a colony, it is very common for bacterial biofilms to form. Even after they have been removed by the dentist, some may remain and reform. Biofilms are much more harmful than individual microorganisms and harder to get rid of.
When septicemia is suspected, blood samples are placed into nutritive media. What growth requirements are necessary in the media to ensure that bacteria from the blood specimen will thrive?
Proteins, carbohydrates, water, and electrolytes are necessary components of the media to enable bacteria to grow and reproduce. In addition, the media must be incubated at body temperature, and the appropriate level of oxygen must be present.
Milk sours because of bacterial fermentation. Explain why.
Fermentation happens because the bacteria are not able to fully oxidize the sugar by cellular respiration and in the process energy is released. During lactic acid fermentation, bacteria (Mostly lactic acid bacteria) sour milk by metabolizing lactose sugar to lactic acid. The monosaccharides of lactose (a disaccharide) are catabolized by glycolysis, and the resulting pyruvic acid is reduced by NADH to lactic acid.
You are performing an experiment with a facultative anaerobe. You set up two cultures, both with the same type of medium. You place one in an anaerobic growth chamber and the other culture is exposed to the air. Which of the two cultures will contain more cells at the end of the experiment? Why?
The culture exposed to air. The availability of oxygen makes more complete metabolism of compounds possible; thus, more energy is available for synthesis and growth than is available when oxygen is absent.
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