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Powerful organization linked to political parties who controlled local governments in many cities
the appointments or privileges that a politician can give to loyal supporters; the spoils system
body of non-elected government workers
combination of corporations with the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices
journalists who wrote stories that brought public attention to problems and exposed corruption and injustices
An election in which members of a party choose candidates for a governmental position; first time state voters chose their party's candidates
allowed citizens to place a measure of issue on the ballot in a state election
gave voters the oppritunity to accept or reject measures that the state legislature enacted
enabled voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from their jobs
an arrangement in which contractors padded the amount of their bill for city work and paid, or "kicked back" a percentage of that amount to the political bosses
representative for or the head of a political machine; gained votes for their parties by doing favors for people
established the Civil Service Commission
Civil Sercice Commission
set up competitive examinations for federal jobs