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favoring reform

Political Machine

Powerful organization linked to political parties who controlled local governments in many cities


the appointments or privileges that a politician can give to loyal supporters; the spoils system

Civil Service

body of non-elected government workers


combination of corporations with the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices


journalists who wrote stories that brought public attention to problems and exposed corruption and injustices


An election in which members of a party choose candidates for a governmental position; first time state voters chose their party's candidates


allowed citizens to place a measure of issue on the ballot in a state election


gave voters the oppritunity to accept or reject measures that the state legislature enacted


enabled voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from their jobs


an arrangement in which contractors padded the amount of their bill for city work and paid, or "kicked back" a percentage of that amount to the political bosses

Political Boss

representative for or the head of a political machine; gained votes for their parties by doing favors for people

Pendleton Act

established the Civil Service Commission

Civil Sercice Commission

set up competitive examinations for federal jobs

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