Unit 8: Southwest Asia/ Middle East
Terms in this set (15)
Known as the "Cradle of Civilization," this region was home to several early river valley societies. Located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the region is known for its rich alluvial soil, which has earned it the nickname the "Fertile Crescent."
Which of the following regions is discussed in the passage above?
A. the Anatolian Plateau
B. the Hindu Kush
D. the Khuzestan Plain
Citizens who wanted fair treatment and new government systems started __________ in 2011.
A. peace talks
After Middle Eastern lands were partitioned between European countries, the United Kingdom held all of the following regions except __________.
Which Middle Eastern plateau is surrounded by mountains and contains two uninhabitable deserts?
A. Saudi Arabia's Central Plateau
B. Iran's Interior Plateau
C. the Anatolian Plateau
D. the Gaza Strip
In the 1920s, Western powers began to expand their influence in the Middle East primarily due to __________.
A. the discovery of oil in the region
B. the rising number of terrorist attacks against the West
C. European desires to create a Jewish homeland
D. rising fundamentalist movements in Iran and Saudi Arabia
Which of the following statements about the status of women in Saudi Arabia is false?
A. Women are not allowed to attend colleges or universities.
B. Women do not have access to mosques, libraries, or parks.
C. Women must wear abayas, garments that cover them from head to toe.
D. Child marriage and polygamy are legal.
The United Nations passed a __________ that split Palestine into __________.
A. resolution . . . two states
B. constitution . . . three states
C. law . . . two Arab nations
D. bill . . . three European territories
The process of __________ allows Middle Eastern countries to extract salt from seawater.
A. subsistence agriculture
B. aquifer use
D. petroleum refining
How does Islam impact the culture of the Middle East?
Islam is a dominant religion in the Middle East. Several important holy sites, including Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem, are located in the area. The religion influences dress, behavior, political systems, and other elements. Some nations use Sharia law, while others have created civil laws more loosely based on Islam's tenets. Many Middle Eastern nations combine these beliefs and cultural practices with secular principles.
Using four or more complete sentences, explain why the creation of the state of Israel has led to conflict between the Israelis and Palestinian Arabs.
The state of Israel has been a major source of conflict in the Middle East since even before its creation in 1948. The conflict started when European Jews migrated to Palestine with the hope of starting their own state soon after World War II. Due to its historical and religious importance, the European Jews believed Palestine was the best location to start a new state. This created a conflict because large numbers of Jews began to immigrate to Palestine while Palestinian Arabs were already living in the region. The Palestinian Arabs in the region did not have their own independent state, yet were hoping to create one. At the time, the British were in charge of the land and soon decided to turn the issue over to the United Nations. The United Nations created a resolution to divide Palestine into two independent states, one for the Jewish population and one for the Arab population. This resolution not only led to violent conflicts between the Jews and the Palestinians, it also angered many of the surrounding Arab states. The conflict over the state of Israel has lasted over 50 years. Peace agreements in the region have still proven unsuccessful.
What influence did early Muslim traders have on Europe and North Africa? Give three examples of cultural changes brought by traders from the Muslim world.
Muslim traders connected European and North African merchants with the Far East and Asian trade routes. They often traded spices, silk, and cotton textiles. They also traded ideas, including advanced mathematics, chess, and Arabic numerals. The Arabic language and the Islamic faith spread rapidly in North Africa. Today, Arabic is the official language in all North African countries and Islam is the most common religion.
Which statement about the Qur'an is true?
It is a collection of Muhammad's prophecies.
It written in both Arabic and Hebrew.
It was compiled after Muhammad's death.
It is a book that Muslims follow only during specific religious events.
Using complete sentences, summarize two conflicts that took place in the Middle East after 1990. Identify the name of the conflict and the main countries or groups involved, and describe why the conflict occurred.
The Gulf War was a conflict that involved Iraq, Kuwait, and 39 additional countries. The leader of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, invaded the small country of Kuwait and seized its oil fields. The president of the United States at the time, George H.W. Bush, led a coalition of 39 countries to stop Saddam Hussein and to help the citizens of Kuwait. The conflict in Afghanistan began in 2001 after the United States was attacked by a terrorist group. The United States believed that Afghanistan was harboring the terrorists responsible for the attacks, so it invaded the country and overthrew its government. The efforts to rebuild and stabilize the country are ongoing. The war in Iraq started in 2003. The conflict was between Iraq, the United States, and a few US allies. It was believed that Iraq was in possession of weapons of mass destruction and also linked to terrorist activities. The United States invaded Iraq and overthrew its government. The efforts to rebuild, stabilize, and create a democracy in Iraq are ongoing. Many internal conflicts, known as the Arab Spring, erupted in the Middle East starting in January of 2011. Citizens in countries such as Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Tunisia, Libya, and Bahrain led protests against their governments. The people living in these countries are tired of living under dictators that do not allow them to participate in government and treat them unfairly.
How do secular Muslim states and theocracies differ?
In theocracies, civil law is based on religious tenets and the head of state is a religious leader. Constitutions and legislatures have limited authority to change law. In secular Muslim states, there are prohibitions on religious interference in law and politics. Sharia law is limited to personal matters.
During a __________, winds from the northwest sweep toward the Persian Gulf, often causing major sandstorms.