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Victimology- Child Abuse
Terms in this set (40)
Definition/Typology of Child Victimization
1. Conventional crimes in which children are victims (rape, robbery, assault).
2. Acts that violate a child's welfare statutes, including some of the most serious and dangerous acts committed against children (abuse, neglect, child explotation).
3. Acts that would clearly be crimes if committed by adults against adults.
National Incidence Study
1974. 58% of children experience some type of child abuse.
5/100,000 child deaths per day
78.3% neglect- highest
2.4% medical neglect-lowest
child abuse is highest rate it has ever been. Most people believe this.
media turns child abuse into something bigger than it is.
detainment through trickery or manipulation
referred to youngsters whose whereabouts were unknown to their parents and caretakers.
-1984 National Incidence Study of Missing Abducted, Runaway, and Throwaway (NISMART) established to gather data.
-NISMART2 study of over 800,000 cases reported to police.
National Responses to Problems
-Be on the Look Out (BOLO)
-Code Adam: abducted in shopping mall
-Amber Alert: nin year old girl who was kidnapped while rider hir bike in Texas in 1996
-Stockholm Syndrome Challenges:when given chances to escape, they don't.
Battered Children Syndrome
Doctors can actually make a medical diagnosis on an abused child
-Dr. C.H. Kempe
Physical Child Abuse
any act that results in a nonaccidental physical injury by a person who has care, custody or control of a child.
Extent of Problem
-prevent child abuse America (1986)
--estimated 3.6 million accepted by CPS (almost 50 per 1,000)
-an estimated 1,530 children died as a result of maltreatment
-51% physical abuse was leading cause of death.
-child neglect 43%
-all ages, races, economic status & gender are at risk
-children who are more difficult to manage or control may be at higher risk.
-average for physical abuse: 8 yrs old.
Indications of Physical Abuse
1. Locations/Types of Injury
2. Psychological/Behavioral Symptoms
3. Explanation of Injuries
-Unexplained injury: red flag
-Different Versions of the Incident
-Delay in Seeking Medical Attention
-Timing of Injury
-Location of Bruise
-"Partial" (first and secondary degree burns.)
-"Full Thickness" (third and fourth degree)
-water or immersion burns
-Rib, humerus, femur, tibia, skull, hand, ulna, radius
-numerous :healed fractures (calcium deposits)
-Spiral Fractures- big indication of physical abuse
7. Head injuries
-most common cause of martality in abused children
-concussion cerebral contussion
-shaken baby syndrome
Child Sexual Abuse
-as many as 10-15% of all boys and 20-25% of all girls have experienced at least one instance of sexual abuse prior to the age of 18.
Child Sexual Abuse Definition
a sexual exploitation or sexual activities with a child under circumstances that indicated that the child's health or welfare is harmed or threatened.
4 preconditions model of sexual abuse
1. Motivation to Abuse Sexually.
2. Overcoming Internal Inhibitors
3. Factors Predisposing to overcome external inhibitors
4. factors predisposing to overcome child's resistance.
-30% of victims are boys under the age of 6
-4-9 years = high risk
-terminated = 14 years
Indicators of Sexual Abuse
-inability to trust
Physical Indicators of Sexual Abuse
difficulty walking or sitting
-loss of appetite
-pain during urination
Medical Indicators of Sexual Abuse
-almost 70% of victims do not show medical indicators
-sexual abuse may not show up in medical examinations
-physical exam should cover entire body
Forms of Sexual Abuse
Sexual Allegations in Divorce. A spiteful mother pressured her daughter to echo a fictitious story about molestations that never occurred.
negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child by a parent or caretaker under circumstances indicating harm or threatening harm to child's health or welfare
Causes of Neglect
economic theory: result of poverty
ecological theory: result of social causes
personalistic theory: individual personality of that person who is neglecting that child
Indications of Neglect
consists of acts or omissions that are judged by community standards and professional expertise to be psychologically damaging to the child.
Characteristics of emotional neglect
-spurning or rejecting child
-denying child's emotional responses
Guardian Ad Litem (GAL)
child advocate. someone who knows system very well but will do everything in best interest for that child.
Children as Witnesses
2 points of view
Wheeler vs. US
children under 14 had to pass competency before testifying
1990 US Supreme Court
Maryland vs. Craig ruled alternatives permissable
-use of dolls,e tc
Legal system starts with a huge workload, cases are "removed" or "lost" at each stage in the proceedings until there are very few left at the end of the process.
US Department of Justice found that over 1000 children die due to maltreatment in 1996
-3/4 victims were children under the age of 4
-3 million victims of child abuse and neglect
- 55% white, 28% black, 12% latino
Additional forms of explotaitions
abuse of adolescents by parents
statutory rape of minors
expelled from their homes by angry or neglectful parents.
deceitful tricks abductors use to entice them- far exceeds the old warning of "don't accept candy from strangers."
-distinguish between good and bad touches.
cruelty to children
a problem that only if permanent injury or death resulted were adults in danger of being help responsible for going too far.
HOuse of Refuge movement
early 1800s intervened on behalf of beaten and neglected children. Its priority was to precent abused children from growing up to be delinquents.
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act
passed in 1974 and prohibited maltreatment in all its guises. including neglect, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse
new cases that come to light each year
proportion of youth in some population that is being studeid who have never suffered this form of victimization
unsubstantiated or "not indicated" cases are dismissed or closed when, after an investigation, there is insufficient legally admissible evidence on which to proceed.
delusions arising from the therapist;s repetition of persuasive suggestions
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