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57 terms

chapter 4

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transport vesicles
where products of the er are shiped to
microbodies
bounded by single membrane
glyoxysomes
convert fats to sugers
contractile vacuole
pumps out excess water
thylakoids
flattend green sacs stacked up
granum
stack of thylakoids
stroma
thick fluid surrounding thylakoids
intermembrane space
region between inner and outer membranes
cristae
increases surface area to enhance ATP production
mitochondrial matrix
most respiration here
organelle
structure with a specialized function in a cell
phagocytosis
cellular "eating"
eukaryotic
cytoplasm, contain organelles, found in plants and animals
prokaryotic
no membrane, ribosomes and DNA, found in bactera and archea
which ribosomes makes proteins to be exported out
bound ribosomes- attatched to endoplasmic reticulum
which ribosomes make proteins for cell use
free ribosomes- suspended in cytosol
examples of lysomal diseases
pompe's disease- liver cant break down polysaccharide glycogen and tay-sachs- overload of lipids in nervous system
nuclear envalope
seperating nucleus from cytoplasm
chromatin
undivided chromosomes
nucleolus
synthesis of ribosomes
cilia
short finger like projections used for locomotion
cytosol
semi fluid medium
cytoplasmic streaming
cytoplasm flows in a certain direction
3 parts of the cytoskeleton
microtubule, intermediate filament, microfilament
what is the difference between magnification and resolution
magnification makes it bigger resolution makes it clearer
what are the differences in TEM and SEM
sem uses a beam to scan the surface of a cell and tem shoots a beam of light through the specimen
differenced between plasma membrane and cell wall
cell wall maintence of cell shape and skeletal support and plasma membrane keeps stuff from coming in and leaving
what is the route for membrane construction in the cell
nucleus to ribosomes to rough er to golgi apparatus to transport vacuoles to plasma membrane back to transport vacuoles
layers of cell wall
there is a thin, flexible primary cell wall (btwn the 2 cell walls is the middle lamella - like glue) (pectin)
3 junctions compared to plasmodesmata
tight junctions-binds cells together Anchoring junctions - attach adjacent cells to each other to stretch Gap junctions - allow water and other small molecules to flow between neighboring cells (similar to plasmodesmata in plants) plasmodesmata
- channels in the cell wall
- strands of cytoplasm connect 1 cell to another
how does plant cell grow larger
photosynthesis
you would expect a cell with an extensive Golgi apparatus to
secrete a lot of material
stores calcium, important in muscle contraction?
smooth er
a plant cell was biologically engineered containing radioactive nucleotides. Later examination of the cell showed the radioactivity to be concentrated in the
nucleus
if the nucleus is a cell's control center and chloroplasts its solar collectors, which of the following might be called the cell's combination food processor and garbage disposal?
lysosome
the internal skeleton of a cell is composed of
microtubules,intermediate filaments, and microfilaments
why is a cell limited by size?
its need for enough surface area for exchange with its environment
which organelle matches with its function?
central vacuole...storage
what organelles are involved in energy conversion
mitochondrion and chloroplast
to enter or leave the cell substances must pass through...
the plasma membrane
which group is involved in manufacturing substances needed by the cell?
ribosome, rough er, smooth er
what consist of prokaryotic cell
bacteria
what would not be considered part of a cell's cytoplasm
the nucleus
if a cell has ribosomes, a plasma membrane, a cell wall, and other parts, it would be from
oak tree
if a cells chromatin were damaged, the cell would
go out of control
dye injected into a cell might be able to enter an adjacent cell through a
plasmodesma
a mutant plant cell unable to manufacture cellulose would be unable to
build a cell wall
when elongated, tube-shaped cells from the lining of the intestine are treated with a certain chemical, the cells sag and become round blobs. the internal structures disrupted by this chemical are probably
microtubules
why has the electron microscope been particularly useful in studying bacteria?
bacteria are so small
a researcher made an interesting observation about a protein made by the rough er and eventually used to build a cells plasma membrane. the protein in the membrane was actually slightly different from the protein made in the er. the protein was probably changed in the
Golgi apparatus
if a cell has mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth er and other parts it would not be
a bacterium
tight junction
link animal cells in a leak proof sheet
plasmodesma
channel between plant cells
anchoring junction
connects animal cells into a strong sheet
cell wall
rigid cellulose covering of plant cell
gap juntion
channel between animal cells
extracellular matrix
sticky layer holds animal cells together