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ADV 410 Advanced PR UIUC Test 1
Terms in this set (82)
Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.
Group of people who have the same type of relationship with an organization
IE: UIUC undergrads, faculty, alumni, etc.
Four phases of strategic planning
Formative research, strategy, tactics, research evaluation
Formative Research (Four Phases)
Information that you gather that guides you as you plan a campaign, environmental scanning.
Before planning, gather information.
Organization's situation, competitors, organization analysis, reputation, ability to hire/retain workers, expansion plans, etc.
Formative Research Steps
Step 1: Analyze situation
Step 2: Analyze organization
Step 3: Analyze publics
Strategy (Four Phases)
Making decisions dealing with the expected impact of the communication as well as the nature of the communication itself.
4. Establishing goals and objectives
5. Formulating action and response strategies
6. Developing the message strategy.
Tactics (Four Phases)
Day to day tasks
Process by which organization tries to anticipate emerging issues and respond to them before they become problems
Process of identifying, controlling, minimizing impact of uncertain events on an organization
Issue that definitely could become a problem, reduce risk of damage by taking action ahead of time
IE: Sexual Harassment Training
Process of dealing with out of control issues; coping with crises.
Usually involves implementing whatever crisis plan an organization has
Gathering information about events, trends occurring in an organization's external environment that might impact organization; used in issues management
Comparing your organization's policies, performance to standard with goal of improvement; used in issues management
Basic Components of the Public Relations Audit
Internal Environment, public perception, external environment
Internal Environment (basic components of PR audit)
1. Performance: quality of goods and services provided, viability of mission, vision or organization; Wirtz "Hardest to change, but most important long term"
2. Niche: What's special about organization; what makes it unique from competitors
3. Ethical Base: Organization has explicit statement on ethics (often rely on PR for advice
4. Internal Implements : are there people who fight against what PR whats? If so, get them interested and involved
Public Perception (basic components of PR audit)
A. Visibility: knowledge/awareness, do publics have accurate info in order to have those opinions/complaints
B. Reputation: general, overall, long-term impression of an organization
External Environment (basic components of PR audit)
Supporters, competitors, opponents (groups fighting your org), external impediments (outside things that may affect org) .
Five Characteristics of Publics
3. Important to organization
4. Large enough
Five Variables of measuring Org-Public Relationship (OPR)?
1. Public Relation Situation
3. Communication Behavior
5. Personality Preferences
Public Relations situation (five variables of OPR)
Assess public wants, needs, interests and expectation and what it does NOT want, need
Organization (five variables of OPR)
Relationship with the company, how the org impacts public and vice versa.
Communication Behavior (five variables of OPR)
Study Publics' communication habits and channels
How an organization distinguishes itself with a unique meaning in the mind of its publics; important that everything organization does reflects distinctive element
Personality Preferences (five variables of OPR)
Publics' psychological and temperamental preferences - appraise logical vs. emotional appeal
Broad outcome that indicates to an organization when it has succeeded; provides direction
Statement consistent with organization's positioning and emerging from its goals; clear statement of intended purpose that represents a measurable outcome; pinpoint destination
Three common PR Goals
1. Reputation Management: identity and perception of organization
2. Relationship Management: how org connects with public; relating to them and interacting
3. Task Management: getting things done
Altogether, we are concerned with all three in PR
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-Based
Hierarchy of Objectives
Awareness, Attitude, Action (AAA) All three work together.
Awareness (Hierarchy of Objectives)
Deals with knowledge and understanding; is our target public aware of our product/good?
Attitude (Hierarchy of Objectives)
Are evaluations positive or negative? Specific to new product/policy/etc.
IE: Response to change in website
Action (Hierarchy of Objectives)
Addresses some type of desired measurable behavior from target public; specific to objective if there is an increase or decrease in it.
IE: Decrease in complaints? Mistakes?
Difference between A. Proactive Strategy and B. Reactive Strategy
(A) doing things when the organization wants
(B) reacting or responding to something organization didn't plan
Organizational performance, Audience engagement, special event, alliance and coalition, sponsorship, strategic philanthropy, activism.
Pre-emptive action, offensive responses, defensive responses, diversionary response, vocal commisseration, rectifying behavior, deliberate inaction.
Pre-emptive Action (Reactive Strategy)
Organization anticipates that something bad might happen; pre-rebuttal: organization comments, releases statement before "other side" has a chance (sets tone for public)
Offensive Response (Reactive Strategy)
similar to pre-emptive except that more directly attacks credibility of opponent/accuser; reduce trustworthiness and credibility, attack/embarrass/shock/threat (Smith)
IE: when PETA videotapes behind the scenes at IAMS
Defensive response (Reactive Strategy)
When organization reacts by defending actions (usually after fact) sometimes organization isn't wrong;
Smith: denial, excuse, justification, reversal; don't lie, better to say nothing than lie.
Diversionary Response (Reactive Strategy)
When organization tries to take attention away from problem or crisis
Smith: concession, ingratiation, disassociation, relabeling
Vocal Comisseration (Reactive Strategy)
When public statements by organization recognize problem and suggest change will take place (and possibly apologize); Demonstrates that organization understands why public is upset.
Smith: concern, condolence, regret, apology
Rectifying Problems (Reactive Strategy)
When organization takes steps to fix problem and/or compensate affected publics, provides strong pivot point to move forward
Smith: investigation (most common), corrective action (other most common), restitution, repentance
When organization makes conscious decision not to address publicly and/or internally potential problem; when it's so bizarre that it's better not to comment or do anything
Smith: Strategic silence, strategic ambiguity, strategic inaction
IE: Northwest airlines profiling attack video
Communicating what crisis is occurring to related publics/protecting client from challenge; process of dealing with out of control issues; coping wit crisis; usually entails implementing whatever crisis plan organization has in place (who is in charge of what?)
Event that threatens the relationship between org and publics/reputation of client or organization
Two important facets of Crisis Management
Prevention and Preparation
Prevention (important facets of CM)
Do what you can to prevent crises; identify what could go wrong and think of ways to reduce risk. Includes risk management, risk training.
IE: Sexual harassment training
Preparation (important facets of CM)
Develop plan for when crisis does occur; who is responsible for what? Includes prepackaged responses to crises, determining flow of communication, command structure; going through trial run/scenarios
Predictable Phases of a Crisis
1. In the moment
2. Initial Follow-up
In the moment (phases of crisis)
Timeframe depends on crisis; goal is to take control of communication. Most important and least controllable is social media; inside to outside communication (from org to public); within organization, flow info to org to keep them aware/updated.
Have clearly defined roles to take control of narrative; address what people want to know; this is where preparation comes in.
Initial Follow-Up (phases of crisis)
Timeface depends on crisis; goal: communicate sense that situation is UNDER CONTROL via consistent messages answering publics, launch investigation
Restoration (phases of crisis)
Timeframe depends on crisis; goal is to re-establish trust, repair damage to org-pub relationship, compensate victims.
How? Messages to publics out what is being done to help who was affected and to prevent future similar cases.
What does (A) the media want to know during a crisis? What does (B) the community want to know?
(A) WWWWWH? Has problem been contained? Who is in charge? How are people who were affected being helped? (later) Why did this happen? Could it have been prevented?
(B) Am I/my family safe? What have you found that may affect me? What can I do to protect myself? (later) Who caused this? Can it be fixed?
What challenge does Social Media present to crisis management?
People can share stories which makes it very easy to spread rumors about crisis.
How can social media and organizational websites be used in crisis communication?
Communicate information with constant updates; easy way to direct concerns to one place.
Types of Research Questions
Open-ended survey (answers are provided by person completing survey), closed ended survey (answers are provided by person constructing the survey)
Types of Surveys
Likert Scales, Likert-type scales, Semantic Differential, Screening questions/items
Likert scale (type of survey)
Response options: disagree/agree or strongly disagree/agree
IE: Exercising at least 30 minutes four or more times a week is important to me
Likert-type scale (type of survey)
Response options: frequently/infrequently, almost always/never,
IE: I make a weekly schedule that includes time for exercising
Semantic Differential (type of survey)
Starts with phrase or statement followed by bipolar adjectives with line between adjectives that the respondent selects a spot on to represent how they feel about statement. Very common for measuring attitudes.
Used to ensure respondent is eligible for survey.
If these questions influence results, put them at the end of survey
Most common way to report survey results
Smith Step 1.
A. Organization's situation - organizational analysis, reputation, and ability to hire/retain workers, sales, expansion plans, environmental scanning, etc.
B. Risk Management - process of identifying, controlling, minimizing impact of uncertain events on organization
C. Crisis management: process of dealing with out-of-control issues;coping with crises
D; Formative Research: information that you gather that guides you as you plan a campaign;environmental scanning
Smith Step 2.
Look more closely at organization; public relations audit can identify strengths and weaknesses of organization. Examine internal environment, public perception and external environment
Smith Step 3.
Publics - who are organization's publics? What features do they have? Relationship between public and organization?
Market, audience and stakeholder.
Smith Step 4
Strategy - "the organization's overall plan"
Starts with publics when in PR, can be proactive or responsive, establish goals and objectives.
Hierarchy of Objectives (Smith Step 4)
1. Become aware
2. Become interested
3. Interest becomes desire
4. Finally we have action
Smith Step 5
Proactive, Reactive strategies.
Gender and PR
Lots of females who think PR is a great place for a career can't move up into top leadership. First two years W 43% M 34%, after two year W 16% men 34%
In-house vs. Agency
Agency: breadth not depth
Inhouse: depth not breadth
easier to move from agency to in-house as opposed to other way around
Tension between what clients need and what we can sell. Who is responsible for educating clients? Everybody complains but no one does anything about it. Best way is to build relationships with journalists
It's all about clicks. Using activities (including controversial and illegal ones) to gain media attention for you cause (Smith).
Find topic that you know will generate media coverage (Trust me I'm Lying, Holiday)
Research Journals: just because something is published doesn't make it reliable/real (Chocolate, Bohannon)
People who pay attention to medium and receive messages, often distinguish between intended or potential audience and those who actually receive message.
Person with a vested interest in an organization and/or successful completion of a project.
Link between two groups: audience and stakeholder
Public that serves as link between organization and their public, IE: Minnesota high school football coaches
Individual or single element on a survey
A series of items designed to measure something
A measure of how positively or negatively someone evaluates an object
A series of items designed to measure something
A measure of how positively or negatively someone evaluates an object
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