42 terms

Histology of Nervous Tissue

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neurons and neuroglia
the two main cell types of nervous tissue
satellite cells and schwann cells
neuroglia of the peripheral nervous sytem
neurons
the functional units of nervous tissue
dendrites
these branching neuron processes serves as receptive regions and transmit electrical signals toward the cell body
axons
the neuron processes that generate and conduct nerve impulses
myelin
most axons are covered by this fatty material which insulates the fibers and increases the speed of neurotransmission
tracts
bundles of white matter formed by axons running through the CNS
nerves
bundles of axons that run through the PNS
multipolar
neurons that have many processes that issue from the cell body
efferent
(motor neurons) carry electrical signals from the CNS to primarily muscles or glands
afferent
(sensory neurons) carry electrical signals towards the CNS
endoneurium
the covering that surrounds the axon
oligodendrocytes
type of neuroglial cell that produces myelin in the CNS
microglia
phagocytic cells that ingest and break down waste products and pathogens in the CNS
ependymal cells
produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid
astrocytes
Provide structural and metabolic support for neurons
neurolemmocyte
the PNS neuroglial cell that forms myelin
satellite cell
the PNS neuroglial cell that surrounds neuron cell bodies in ganglia
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
neuroglia
specialized supporting cells in the nervous system
synaptic cleft
junction or point close to contact between neurons
interneuron
neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons
peripheral nervous system
ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves
neurotransmitters
chemicals release by neurons that stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effectors
axon hillock
the cone-shaped area on the cell body from which the axon originates
axon terminal
terminal branch of an axon where neurotransmitters are stored
cell body
site of the nucleus and most important metabolic area
neurofibril
involved in the transport of substances within the neuron
chromatophilic substance
essentially rough endoplasmic reticulum, important metabolically
axon
impulse generator and transmitter
synaptic vesicles
Membrane-bounded compartments in which synthesized neurotransmitters are kept
processes
what determines the classification of a neuron
unipolar
bipolar
multipolar
unipolar
afferent neurons are classified as
multipolar
efferent and interneurons are classified as
nerve
bundles of axons in the PNS that extend to and from the CNS
endoneurium
directly surrounds each individual axon including its myelin sheath
perneurium
surrounds bundles of axons
epineurium
surrounds multiple bundles of axnos
mixed nerve
nerves that carry both afferent and efferent fibers