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490 - Exam 1
Terms in this set (91)
1. Who should you contact first if you have a question about ANY class policy (e.g., missed exams)?
A. Your graduate TA
2. When can I break the rules for the class that are stated in the syllabus and get special treatment that's not available to other students?
D. Never, because all of the policies (including opportunities for dropped exams) were planned to make life easier for all students, that is, with the expectation that many students get sick, have personal emergencies or tragedies
The subdiscipline of cognitive science that is interested in the association between mental processing and brain activity is:
The forgetting curve, as mapped out by Ebbinghaus, demonstrates that material is forgotten:
rapidly at first, then at a very slow steady rate
If you're a psychology major, you've probably been exposed to basic information about the history of psychology in several courses. Each time you're exposed to this information, you probably pick up on it and retain it a little better. This is an example of ________, a key concept from the work of memory psychologist
Bartlett's studies of memory were different than Ebbinghaus's in that:
Bartlett's studies featured a higher degree of realism
What was the term Bartlett used for generalized knowledge structures about events and situations based on past experience?
Gestalt psychologists are known for their work on ________, and profoundly influenced the present-day study
the basic tendency of the mind to organize experience; perception and problem-solving
Lashley ________ the S-R approach to performance, pointing out that ________.
attacked; complex performance plays out too quickly to be a simple chain of S-R associations
Little Baruti sees a four-legged creature that makes the noise, "Woof! Woof!". He points and says, "Dog!" His
mother says, "Good, Baruti, good!" Skinner would propose that Baruti saying, "Dog!" is a _____ that comes
under control of the stimulus, which is ____.
response; the dog
Communications engineering and computer science were both important to the emergence of cognitive psychology because both:
provided a model/metaphor for how the mind might work.
In the end, what happened to behaviorism?
It continues to hold some sway to this day
The information processing approach to cognition likens thought to:
the operation of a computer.
Which of the following is a similarity between computers and humans?
a) Both humans and computers translate incoming information into a different form.
b) Both humans and computers have the capacity for executing a logical decision chain.
c) Both humans and computers have the capacity to store programs and instructions, as well as the data with which these programs work.
According to the information processing approach, the brain can be viewed as________, while mental
processing can be viewed as ________:
the "hardware" of a computer; the computer's "software"
The information processing approach is to the connectionist approach as ________ is to ________.
In explaining cognition, the connectionist approach emphasizes
interactions between individual processing units in the brain
Cognitive neuroscience emerged in the
Communication between neurons can be described as:
both electrical and chemical.
The assumption that the association between two neurons becomes stronger if these two neurons are active at
the same time forms a partial basis for which approach to cognition?
The ______ comprises most of the brain and consists mainly of the ______,
forebrain; cerebral cortex
The areas of the brain that aren't strictly devoted to sensory or motor functions are termed
Which of these is a correct sequencing of cortical areas, from those most anterior to those most posterior?
prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, parietal lobe, occipital lobe
Research on split-brain patients reveals that:
the left hemisphere typically specializes in verbal processing, while the right hemisphere specializes in spatial tasks
Suppose damage to a particular brain area leaves someone unable to recognize faces, but does not affect the
ability to recognize objects. This is an example of ________, and provides some evidence that ________.
a single dissociation; recognition of faces and recognition of objects depend on different brain mechanisms
Suppose damage to brain area "A" leaves someone unable to recognize faces, but does not affect the ability to
recognize everyday objects. In addition, suppose that damage to brain area "B" leaves someone unable to
recognize everyday objects, but does not affect the ability to recognize faces. This is an example of a ________,
and provides some evidence that ________.
a double dissociation; recognition of faces and recognition of objects depend on different brain mechanisms
Which brain investigation technique provides a global recording of the action potentials occurring in the brain?
Event-related potentials is a technique used in conjunction with ________ that allows researchers to _______.
electroencephalography; plot out the time course of brain activity in response to some discrete event
A semantic anomaly (i.e., "Jake put the cookies into the birdbath.") produces an ERP signal termed an N400.
What does the "400" refer to?
time between stimulus presentation and brain response
Which neuroscientific investigation technique uses a SQUID?
How does magnetoencephalography (MEG) compare to EEG in terms of spatial and temporal resolution?
MEG is better than EEG for both spatial and temporal resolution
How does TMS (trans-cranial magnetic stimulation) differ from the other techniques?
TMS involves direct stimulation of the brain; the other techniques do not
The most commonly used neuroscience tool seems to be:
imaging techniques like fMRI and PETscan
Which technique for brain investigation is has been termed "the new phrenology"?
imaging techniques like fMRI and PET scan
How much of our brain do we use?
In referring to "the problem of meaning", renowned psychologist Jerome Bruner was offering what critique of cognitive research?
too much emphasis on internal validity at the expense of external validity
What is the term proposed by Descartes that refers to the belief that mind and body are separable entities?
The term ________ is typically associated with the physiological processes that underlie information intake, while the term ________ is typically associated with the interpretation and organization of incoming information.
_______ is the identification of a stimulus through the assembly of its component features.
what is another name for bottom-up processing?
The identification of a stimulus with the help of context, previous knowledge, and/or expectations is called:
A tendency to perceive lines as flowing naturally, in a single direction is called:
Our tendency to perceptually complete incomplete objects and figures is called:
Navon (1977) presented participants with big letters made up of smaller letters. He had some participants identify the large letter, while other participants had to identify the smaller letters. Finally, on some trials, the large and small letters conflicted (e.g., a large H made of small S's) while on other trials, the large and small letters were consistent (a large H made up of small H's). What did he find?
Conflict between the large and small letters made it more difficult to identify the small letter.
A tendency to encode the overall features of a scene before apprehending scene details is called:
Many social psychologists point out that tests of subliminal persuasion are not really fair tests, because:
subliminal messages don't work unless they tap into some motivation or need
Greenwald, et al., (1991) conducted a double-blind study on the effectiveness of subliminal self-help audiotapes. In their study, participants listened to one of two self-help tapes that (ostensibly) presented
messages designed to aid memory or self-esteem. However, the memory tape was labeled "self-esteem" and the
self-esteem tape was labeled "memory improvement." Later they were assessed on actual improvement in self- esteem or memory, as well as their own perceived improvement in self-esteem or memory. What was found?
There were only perceived improvements, and these improvements matched the label of the tape.
. Which subcortical structure seems particularly involved in regulating emotion and forming emotional memories?
study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking"
the study of thought, learning, and mental organization, which draws on aspects of psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and computer modeling.
German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve.
He was one of the forerunners of cognitive psychology. Bartlett considered most of his own work on cognitive psychology to be a study in social psychology
school of thought that believes all objects and scenes can be observed in their simplest forms
Noam Chomsky's contributions to the developing field of cognitive psychology
argued that linguistics should be a branch of cognitive psychology, or the study of mental processes like critical thinking, problem solving and, of course, language. He also thought that the study of language acquisition had important contributions to make to the study of cognition.
Information processing model in cognitive psychology
model proposes that information is processed and stored in 3 stages
an artificial intelligence approach to cognition in which multiple connections between nodes (equivalent to brain cells) form a massive interactive network in which many processes take place simultaneously. Certain processes in this network, operating in parallel, are grouped together in hierarchies that bring about results such as thought or action.
field that is concerned with the study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes
awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes
the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
Ecological approach to cognition
study of cognitive phenomena within social and natural contexts.
topic of research in social and cognitive psychology, covering issues such as social interaction and decision-making.
intellectual movement that began in the 1950s
a physical feeling or perception resulting from something that happens to or comes into contact with the body.
the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.
as an approach wherein there is a progression from the individual elements to the whole
cognitive process that initiates with our thoughts, which flow down to lower-level functions, such as the senses.
a representation of a plan or theory in the form of an outline or model.
Gibson's direct view of perception.
believed that perception is direct and meaningful.
Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. These principles are organized into five categories: Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure, and Connectedness
ffect refers to the finding that global aspects of a scene are processed more rapidly than local detail in the scene.
perception of or reaction to a stimulus that occurs without awareness or consciousness
refers to the observation that a response to a target (e.g., dog) is faster when it is preceded by a semantically related prime (e.g., cat) compared to an unrelated prime
That is, concepts can be activated without awareness and go on to bias overt responses in ways that people do not intend and cannot control
The ________________________________ lobe is most important in planning processes
Which is NOT one of the six disciplines that make up the interdisciplinary field of cognitive science?
Which two techniques are" brain imaging" techniques?
fMRI and PET
What is the "main theme" of the course (from day 1 lecture)?
biology underlies all of cognitive psychology
Long- _____________________________ ____________________________________ is the modern term for the long-lasting enhancement in communication between two neurons that results from stimulating them simultaneously
What does PDP (a type of connectionism) stand for?
Parallel distributed processing
An action potential causes release of neurotransmitters (chemicals) into the __________
In the video "Sensation and Perception" from class (part of the Discovering Psychology video series), you found out that the absolute threshold for a stimulus is defined as the weakest level that can be detected ______________ of the time.
The Gestalt law of __________________ states that "like items" tend to be grouped together.
_____________________ is the term for a measure of memory developed by Ebbinghaus that refers to the reduction in learning trials needed to learn some set of information due to previous learning trials
When did behaviorism rule American psychology and when did the cognitive revolution occur?
. In the video "Sensation and Perception" from class (part of the Discovering Psychology video series), you saw a description of the research done by ___________________________, who mapped the neural pathways for receptor cells in vision.
Hubel and Wiesel
Research on hemispheric differences in functioning show that
the right hemisphere specializes in holistic, top-down processing more than the other hemisphere
Conceptually-driven processing is also called _______ processing and data-driven processing is also called ________ processing.
ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex, also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see
Which researcher used "The War of the Ghosts"?
Frontal lobe damage: common ability lost =
Absolute threshold for perception
the smallest level of energy required by an external stimulus to be detectable by the human senses, including vision, hearing, taste, smell and touch
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