Biochemistry Terms - A&P

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Enzyme
A type of protein responsible for speeding up chemical reactions by reducing activation energy; biological catalyst
Polysaccharide
a carbohydrate providing long term energy storage (starch/glycogen); also structural carbohydrates found in plants (cellulose) and arthropods (chitin)
Cohesion
When molecules of the same substance stick together
Protein
Macromolecule made up of many amino acids linked together; made of C, H, O, and N; cellular tools
Carbohydrate
Macromolecule also known as sugar; made of C, H, and O
Saccharide
Greek word meaning sugar. There are three different prefixes we attach to it.
Phospholipid
These have a hydrophobic tail & hydrophilic head. They make up the bilayer of a cell membrane
Nonpolar
Property of fatty acids and lipids due to many carbon-hydrogen bonds; repels water
Hydrolysis
Chemical reaction in which water is put in to break apart a polymer; water cutting; water is a reactant
HONC
A mnemonic device used to remember the number of bonds for those four elements, respectively; H1, O2, N3, C4
Catalyst
a protein that "speeds up" a reaction by lowering its activation energy; called an enzyme when in living things
Hydrogen Bond
Type of intermolecular force that holds water molecules together
Monomer
The basic unit of a polymer.
Polymer
Made up of many monomers; macromolecules made of many repeating units
Dehydration Synthesis
Chemical reaction by which polymers are assembled; water is a product
Nucleic Acid
DNA & RNA are examples of this macromolecule
Nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids
Amino Acid
There are 20 of these that, when linked together, form different proteins.
polypeptide
amino acid chain
Polarity
The result of unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms in a bond; water
Fatty acid
A feature (together with glycerol) of a fat molecule; a long chain of hydrogen & carbon.
Triglyceride
Fat molecule; made of a glycerol and 3 fatty acids; saturated or unsaturated
Saturated fat
Lipid with max # of C-C single bonds and H; usually a solid at room temp, usually from animals
Unsaturated fats
Lipid with at least 1 C=C double bond; usually a liquid at room temp; usually from plants
Macromolecules
The overarching umbrella under which the four main categories of biochemical reside - protein, lipid, nucleic acid, & carbohydrate
Water
Molecule necessary for life as we know it
Lipid
Diverse, nonpolar macromolecules made primarily of C and H; function in long term energy storage, cushioning, insulation, and cell membrane structure; ex: fats, oils, phospholipid bilayer
Glucose
most common monosaccharide; cell energy; C6H12O6; product of photosynthesis
Disaccharide
double sugar; short term energy; ex. maltose, sucrose, lactose
Monosaccharide
C6H12O6; single sugar; short term energy; monomer of carbs; Ex: glucose, fructose, galactose
Cellulose
polysaccharide found in plant cell walls; structural carbohydrate; cannot be digested by humans ("dietary fiber")
Hydrocarbon Tail
chain of carbons with hydrogens around them; nonpolar feature of lipids; found on phospholipids and fat molecules; aka fatty acids
Fatty Acids
chain of carbons with hydrogens around them; nonpolar feature of lipids; found on phospholipids and fat molecules; aka hydrocarbon tail
Phospholipid Bilayer
Double layer of specialized lipids that make up all cell membranes; hydrophilic head made of phosphate and hydrophobic tail made of fatty acids.
Hydrophobic
water fearing
Hydrophilic
water loving
DNA
determines the order of amino acids in proteins
R Group
"rotating" part of an amino acid; determines which of the 20 specific amino acids it is.
Carboxyl Group
C double bonded to O, single bond to O, then H; part of an amino acid opposite the amino group
Amino Group
C bonded to 2 Ns; part of an amino acid opposite the carboxyl group
Hormones
Specialized proteins used for signaling in living things
RNA
single stranded nucleic acid; transmits info from DNA to cytoplasm to build proteins
Organic
Molecule including both Carbon and Hydrogen
Inorganic
Molecule that does not contain both Carbon and Hydrogen
Starch
glucose polymer in plants stored as long term energy source
Glycogen
glucose polymer in animals stored in skeletal muscles and liver of humans
chitin
forms exoskeletons of arthropods
Steroids
Lipids constructed from 4 connected rings of carbon atoms; derived from cholesterol
cholesterol
stabilizing component of cell membranes; high levels in blood can cause atherosclerosis
Confirmation
3D structure of proteins; determines protein function
Denaturation
process that alters a protein's native conformation and hence its biological activity; ex. excessive heat, radiation, electricity, pH changes
Substrate
the substance the enzyme acts on; reactant in an enzyme catalyzed reaction
Active Site
region of an enzyme which binds to the substrate
Cofactors
small nonprotein molecules required for proper enzyme function; called coenzymes if organic