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HD 306; Exam 1
Terms in this set (42)
Reasons why we study children
1. To understand how to best raise children
2. To inform social policies
3. To understand human nature
Seven themes of child development
1. Nature and nurture
2. Active Child
3. Continuity and discontinuity
4. Mechanisms of Development
5. Socialcultural Context
6. Individual Differences
7. Research and Children's welfare
overlapping waves theory
Children will try many strategies to solving a problem before settling on the most effective strategy.
Levels/ Structures and connections in Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Model
Individual/Microsystem: children's immediate environment and direct participation
Mesosystem: connections among microsystems
Exosystems: settings we may not participate in, yet affect us.
Starr's factors of individual differences in children
2. Treatment by parents and others
3. Temperament and reactions to situations
4. Different choices in the environment
Correlational designs (Advantages and disadvantages)
Measures relationship between variables.
-Can assess relationships between many variables
-cannot determine cause/effect
Direction of causation problem
A correlation does not indicate which, if either, variable is the cause of another.
Third variable problem
correlation between 2 variables may stem from both being influenced by some third variable.
Experimental design (advantages and disadvantages)
Examines cause and effect
-controls direction of causation, allows causal inference
-Creates artificial environment, some variables cannot be manipulated
Children of different ages measured at the same time.
-Quick, yields information for children of different ages.
-Does not yield information for change over time; most common design in HD
Longitudinal design (advantages and disadvantages)
Same children studied over period of time.
-yields information of change over time, allows comparison of development.
-Slow, expensive, difficult to keep participants involved.
Beliefs of Beng people about beginning of life
Believe that birth is a way for ancestors to stay on earth, in order to please the ancestors and convince them to stay, they treat babies lavishly with jewelry, baths, and clothing.
Advantages and Disadvantages of having children
-sense of maturity
-caregiving and support in old age
-continuing family name
-strengthening couple's relationship
-loss of privacy
Advantages of being older when having children
mothers are more mature and financially stable.
Trends of American mothers age over past three decades (study graph)
American mothers are getting older;
Three periods of prenatal development
1. Period of the zygote
2. Period of the embryo
3. Period of the fetus
more rapid development and growth towards the head rather than the body, limbs, and feet.
(3-8 weeks); Major structures are formed (CNS, organs, muscles, skeleton)
-heart begins pumping blood
-liver and spleen begin producing blood cells
(9weeks- end of pregnancy); Refining stage (exterior genitals formed, mother feels movement, neurons and synapses form, sensitivity to light and sound, age of viability (22wks), rapid gain in neural connectivity)
Fetal sensory experience
-Active even in the womb, touch (from bumping wall of uterus, touching own body), taste (amniotic fluid) smell (odors of amniotic fluid), hearing (mom's voice and outside noise), sensitivity to light
Early preferences by newborn from prenatal experiences (e.g., smell)
-Smell of mom's amniotic fluid
-taste of foods exposed in utero
-mom's voice, changes in heartbeat
Four processes of prenatal development
1. Cell division
2. Cell Migration
3. Cell differentiation
4. Cell Death (Apoptosis)
Talking Eggs study
-Duck hatchlings prefer the sound of mother's voice rather than others
-Ducklings learn preference of sound by being able to hear either their own voice or the sounds of their siblings and then become familiarized with the sound.
Cat in the Hat study
Mom's who read cat in the hat 2 times a day everyday found that their child was familiar with the sound and rhythm of the story after being born
decline in response to repeated or continued stimulation.
Any agent that causes birth defect.
the greater the fetus's exposure to a teratogen, the more likely they are susceptible to a birth defect.
Critical periods for risk
Risk by maternal age (study graph)
-Low birth rate
birth is not a magic starting point (e.g., cat in the hat) are related to prenatal development topics
-learning through habituation
Where is the most common place to give birth? Second? Last? Study graph in lecture notes.
-Hospitals, home, birthing center
Similarities and differences among hospitals, home births, and birthing centers
Relationship between length of pregnancy and infant survival and disability for
preterm infants (study graph)
Longer the pregnancy= less likely vulnerability to disability and increased survival rate
Interventions for preterm infants (isolette, massage, and social contact); which are best? When is isolette appropriate?
Social contact is best; when the child cannot breathe by themselves
parenting preterm infants
-introduce social games
-maintain attention focus
-respond to infant signals positively
What are the survival, avoidance, and diagnostic reflexes?
Survival: Sucking, rooting, swallowing
Avoidance: Blink, withdrawal
Diagnostic: Palmar(grasp), babinski(fanning), stepping, moro(startle)
What are diagnostic reflexes used for?
To make sure the neurosystem is responding
-As you age, you are able to sleep for longer periods of time during the night, and less naps throughout the day.
Rapid Eye Movement; Active sleep state, more intense breathing and heart rate, helps develop visual system.
Lower breathing and heart rate, not as much activity.
What are the sources of crying and how do they change over development?
Introduction take home messages from mind in the making (relayed during in-class discussion)
-Children and adults need life skills
-no fancy technology needed, everyday activities help with this
-It is never too late to teach children life skills
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