APUSH Period 1-2

Terms for Westwood's APUSH course for Periods 1 and 2.
STUDY
PLAY
Mayans
In C America and the Yucatan. Advanced math, calendar, writing, agriculture. Mayapan.
Aztecs
C and S Mexico. Elaborate administration. Harsh religion with human sacrifice. Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
Aztec capital city; present day Mexico City
Cahokia
Settlement of people of American SW. Present-day St. Louis.
Smallpox
Disease NAs didn't have immunity to. Allowed Cortes to conquer Aztecs, because were so weakened by it.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Line drawn by pope (arbitrarily) in New World determining what was Spanish and Portuguese. Spanish got most of the land; Portugal got Brazil.
Conquistadores
Spanish conquerors who came into the New World. Were very brutal. Came for god, gold, glory.
Adelantado
New system of Spanish colonization. Rather than conquering, decided to pacify. Not actually much difference.
Encomienda
Licenses given to Spanish colonists that gave them control over the land and labor.
Don Juan Onate
Created colony of New Mexico. Suppressed Pueblos living there.
Pueblo
The native population in New Mexico. Revolted against Spaniards because were annoyed with their raids on nomads and their cattiness amongst each other. Revolution led by Pope.
Mestizos
Mixed race of Spanish and native. In middle of hierarchy. Not as bad as natives, but not as good as Spanish. This hierarchy was later dissolved and replaced by wealth.
Dutch West India Company
Brought slaves?
Enclosure Movement
Demand for wool increased in Britain, so farmers turned more land into pastures. This displaced many tenants and created a floating lower class of families.
Merchant Capitalism
People profiting from foreign trade. Formed companies with charters and wanted to expand trade, One of the reasons England colonized in America in the first place.
Mercantilism
Cause of colonization and Navigation Acts. Belief that wealth was finite and that one country should hold as much wealth as possible. Didn't want to trade with foreign countries, cuz that gave their money to them. So, made colonies. Once those colonies began trading with foreigners, created Navigation Acts.
Martin Luther
German priest. Driving force behind Protestant Reformation.
John Calvin
Made Calvinism. Believed in predestination and depravity of man. Good life = salvation, bad life = damnation.
Henry VIII
King who first broke away from Catholic Church because they wouldn't let him divorce his barren wife. Made himself head of religion, but didn't change much of the religion.
English Reformation
Change from Catholicism to Protestantism/Church of England.
Calvinism
Religion made by John Calvin.
Church of England (Anglican Church)
Made by Elizabeth I. Was official church of England and was a break from Catholicism. Many thought that didn't incorporate enough of other religions (Calvinism) to be religiously different. So, achieved political goals, but not religious ones.
Separatists
Wanted to break away from Church of England and worship (which was illegal). Moved to America for freedom.
Elizabeth I
Reinstated Protestantism after Queen Mary. Established Church of England.
James I
Believed he ruled by divine right. Favored Catholics and so, caused many to move from England to colonies.
Plantation model of colonization
English believed that should keep themselves separate from native population, so when colonized, tried to make enclosed society that was transplantation of English society. Usually, this didn't work.
French Fur Trade
What the French did when traded with Indians. Reason for their colonies.
coureurs de bois
French fur traders. Good relations with Indians.
Spanish Armada
When Spain was dominant maritime power, this was their formidable fleet. English sailor Sir Francis Drake drafted it with a small fleet of its own. After that, Spanish marital power undermined.
Roanoke
Failed colony in Virginia. Sir Walter Raleigh created it. At first, when Sir Francis Drake went to Roanoke for supplies, all the colonists came back with him. Raleigh tried again. John White came 3 years late with supplies and they were all gone with only the writing Croatoan. Raleigh was discredited and eventually executed.
Jamestown
Founded in 1607 by London/Virginia Company. First successful settlement in Chesapeake. Failed cuz land was bad, only had men, succumbed to disease. Then, John Smith made it better and Virginia Company sent more settlers. After began grown tobacco, it took off.
Captain John Smith
Well traveled hero who came to Jamestown. Knew how to organize lazy colonists. Raided Indians.
Virginia Company
Company that established Jamestown. Went broke by 1644, so Jamestown became royal colony.
Tobacco and John Rolfe
1612 - John Rolfe began growing and exporting tobacco to England. Was very successful.
Headright system
50 acres for each person or each person you paid for. Encouraged family migration and indentured servitude.
Indentured Servants
Signed into labor for 7yrs. Supposed to get benefits after that, but didn't really happen. Created class of floating single men and women.
Powhatans
Tribe that Virginia came in conflict with. By 1644, were completely pacified.
Opechancanough
Powahtan's brother. Launched attack on English in 1622 while pretending to trade goods. Tried again in 1644, but totally failed.
Pocahontas
Powhatan's daughter. Kidnapped by Dale for ransom, converted to Christianity and married John Rolfe.
Royal Colony
Colony controlled by crown.
Proprietary Colony
Colony controlled by one proprietor who usually has absolute authority.
Charter Colony
Colony created by company on a charter.
Bacon's Rebellion
Backwater vs. tidewater. Bacon rebelled because Berkeley wouldn't help them attack Indians. Showed instability caused by floating young men.
Plymouth Plantation
Colony founded by Pilgrims.
Mayflower Compact
Contract made by Pilgrims to allow them to settle outside of Virginia and be loyal to King.
William Bradford
Leader and historian of Pilgrims.
John Winthrop
City upon a hill guy. Leader of Puritans that founded Massachusetts Bay.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Created by Puritans that wanted to make a model community.
Congregational Church
Church established in Massachusetts Bay. Each church had its own minister etc. Didn't have an organized church structure.
Theocracy
What Mass Bay was. Church had tons of power in government and only church members could participate in govt.
Roger Williams
Founded Rhode Island. Complete Separatist.
Anne Hutchinson
Leader who challenged traditional role of women and clergy. Thought clergy had to have a converting experience.
Pequot War
War where English massacred Pequots.
King Phillip's War
War with indians that went on for 3 years until English sided with Mohawks and defeated Metacomet.
English Civil War
Another push factor from England. Charles I disbanded Parliament, then called them back, but was inconsistent, so people rebelled. Roundheads beheaded the king, but Charles II came back and took over crown.
New York
Created by James, Duke of York. Got Dutch to surrender and let them stay. Very diverse. Landed aristocracy = tensions.
Quakers
Tremble in face of God. Created by Society of Friends. All had equal status. No predestination. All had inner divine light. Settled in N Car and Pennsylvania.
William Penn
Quaker who created Pennsylvania. Never worked out for him, but was very successful after he died.
Charter of Liberties
People disliked proprietor's authority in Pennsylvanis, so Penn made Charter of Liberties to limit his power.
James Oglethorpe
Founder of Georgia for military and social reasons.
Navigation Acts
Prevented foreign trade in colonies.
Dominion of New England
James II made all colonies one because no one was listening to Nav Acts and were openly rebelling. Sir Edmund Andros was governor.
Glorious Revolution
Bloodless coup. William and Mark replaced James II as crown.
Leisler's Revolution
New York. Disliked Nicholson, so Leisler (left out of aristocracy) rebelled and resisted new changes to govt, so became royal colony. Divided NY into Leislerians and anti-Leislerians.
Coode's Revolution
Maryland thought Lord Baltimore had defied William and Mary, so revolted and overthrew government. Applied to be a royal colony and was accepted.
Middle Passage
Slave's journey from Africa to Caribbean.
Royal African Company
Had monopoly over slave trade, but was broken, so supply of slaves increased.
Slave Codes
Laws that gave masters complete authority over slaves.
Sctoch-Irish
Immigrants to edges of settlement. Brutal to natives.
Charles Carrol
Rich owner of a huge plantation
Gullah
Language spoken by slaves.. Mix of African and English.
Stono Rebellion
Biggest slave revolt.
Town meeting
Had these once a year in Puritan society. Elected reps and discussed issues.
"visible saints"
People who had had a covering experience.
Salem
Witch trials.
Great Awakening
Movement of people turning to new religions
Enlightenment
Rational, scientific thought taking over Europe.
dame schools
School run by women for women in their homes.
Cotton Mather
Developed vaccine for smallpox.
John Peter Zenger
His trial showed that criticism of govt isn't libel if it is factually correct.