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Stats 8 (ch.7 - ch.8)
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Gravity
Terms in this set (37)
case-control study
Subjects are selected based on a defined outcome, and a control group of subjects is selected separately to serve as a baseline with which the case group is compared.
nonresponse
Source of bias in a sample survey which occurs when a selected individual cannot be contacted or refuses to cooperate.
bias
Result when the design of a statistical study systematically favors certain outcomes, or in other words, the systematic error caused by a bad sampling design.
sample
The part of the population from which we actually collect information. We use this to draw conclusions about the entire population.
confounded
Two variables (explanatory variables or lurking variables) are said to be this when their effects on a response variable cannot be distinguished from each other.
cohort study
Subjects sharing a common demographic characteristic are enrolled and observed at regular intervals over an extended period of time.
response bias
Type of bias in a sample survey caused by the behavior of the respondent or the interviewer, or the types of questions being asked.
experiment
Deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses. The purpose is to study whether the treatment causes a change in the response.
observational study
Observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt to influence the responses. The purpose is to describe and compare existing groups or situations.
population
The entire group of individuals (not necessarily people) in a statistical study about which we want information.
convenience sample
A sampling design that chooses individuals close at hand.
sampling design
Describes exactly how to choose a sample from the population.
multistage sample
Sampling design that typically involve choosing simple random samples within simple random samples.
stratified random sample
Sampling design that samples important groups within a population separately and then combines these samples.
sample survey
An observational study that relies on a random sample drawn from the entire population at one point in time. It most often assesses the characteristics or opinions of people, with a wide array of applications.
undercoverage
Occurs in a sample survey when some groups in the population are left out of the process of choosing the sample.
probability sample
A sample chosen by chance.
voluntary response sample
A sampling design that lets individuals choose whether to participate or not.
simple random sample
Denoted SRS, gives every possible sample of a given size the same chance to be chosen. Software or a table of random digits can be used to select an SRS from a known, finite population.
table of random digits
A table containing a long random sequence of the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, useful for selecting a simple random sample.
lack of realism
The most serious potential weakness of experiments. When the subjects or treatments or setting of an experiment do not realistically duplicate the conditions we really want to study.
block
A group of individuals that are known before the experiment to be similar in some way that is expected to affect the response to the treatments.
control group
In an experiment, a group that serves as a baseline with which the experimental group is compared.
experimental group
A group of individuals receiving a treatment whose effect we seek to understand.
double-blind experiment
Experiment where neither the subjects nor the people who interact with them know which treatment each subject is receiving.
matched pairs
Experimental design that compares exactly two treatments, either by using a series of individuals that are closely matched two by two or by using each individual twice. This design requires that the assignment of the two treatments within each pair be randomized to avoid a systematic bias.
placebo
A control treatment that is fake (for example, taking a sugar pill) but otherwise indistinguishable from the treatment in the experimental group.
ethics
Overarching principle guiding experimentation. No matter what experiments could be done and what we might gain from them, we need to ask ourselves if the end justifies the means and be open to a continuing debate.
principles of experimental design
1. Control the effects of lurking variabes on the response, most simply by comparing two or more treatments. 2. Randomize - use impersonal chance to assign subjects to treatments. 3. Use enough subjects in each group to reduce chance variation in the results.
randomized comparative experiment
An experiment that uses both comparison of two or more treatments and chance assignment of subjects to treatments.
experimental units
Term used to describe individuals (or units) studied in an experiment when they are not people.
subjects
Term used to describe individuals (or units) studied in an experiment when they are people.
factors
The explanatory variables in an experiment.
treatment
Any specific experimental condition applied to the subjects in an experiment. If an experiment has more than one factor, a treatment is a combination of specific values of each factor.
block design
Experimental design where the random assignment of individuals to treatments is carried out separately within each block.
completely randomized design
Experimental design where all the individuals are allocated at random among all the treatments.
statistical significance
An observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance.
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