Chapter 3 Vocab.

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gulf stream
warm ocean current that moves warm tropical water northward along eastern North America
weather
the condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place
climate
weather conditions in a region over a long period of time
temperature
measurement of heat
Greenhouse effect
when the earth's atmosphere traps heat energy
Global warming
process in which the Earth grows warmer over a period of time
Prevailing winds
winds that blow from the same direction most of the time
Jet streams
high speed winds blowing from a general westerly direction
westerly winds
middle-latitudes, west to east prevailing winds
easterly winds
cold winds originating from the arctic
Doldrums
near the equator, light winds
Horse winds
above and below the equator, unprdictable winds
Monsoon
a wind system in which winds reverse direction and cause seasons of wet and dry weather
Tsunami
large sea waves created by undersea tectonic activity like earthquakes
evaporation
Process by which liquid changes to gas
humidity
amount of water vapor in the air
condensation
process by which water vapor changes from gas into liquid droplets
Orographic Effect
cooling effect that occurs when air is forced to rise over a mountain, resulting in a wetter windward side and a drier leeward side
rain shadow
a drier area on the leeward side of a mountain range
typhoons
term for hurricanes in the western Pacific Ocean
ecosystems
communities of plants and animals
Savannas
areas of tropical grasslands, scattered trees and schrubs`
Arid
dry
Deciduous Forests
forests made-up of trees that lose their leaves during part of the year
Coniferous Forests
Forests of cone-bearing evergreen trees
Permafrost
permanently frozen soil below the ground's surface
El 'Nino
"The Boy" when easter Pacific Ocean is warmer and the climate much wetter than normal
Windward side
facing the wind - much rain
Leeward side
facing away from the wind, little rain
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