the child is a blank slate - Tabula Rasa (neither good nor bad until the rewards and punishments of experiences exert an influence on him/her.)
the child is innately good (a noble savage). If untainted by corruption and evil in the world, he/she would be undeniably good when grown.
Predominate view of how to view a child today
Active and exploring from birth
While recognizing the importance of rewards and punishments on the child
usually refers to physical changes that are quantitative in nature
naturally unfolding changes that are relatively independent of environment
relatively permanent change in behavior that results from practice or experience
Involves watching people and carefully recording what they do and say. 2 kinds= Naturalistic Observations and Structured Observations
Subjects are observed in their natural settings and the observer is hidden.
Since some behaviors are difficult to observe naturally, it may be necessary for the researcher to artificially create a setting that is likely to elicit the behavior of interest.
Gathering information through the use of clinical interviews, surveys or questionnaires. Gather a lot of data in a short period of time Convenient Problem: Answers are sometimes inaccurate.
This method of study requires a deliberate & systematic manipulation of some aspect of a situation to detect possible change.
Requires two groups: Experimental Group - group on which the independent variable is manipulated Control Group - group on which the independent variable is not manipulated
• Example of Formal Experiment: hypothesis that lack of sleep between 2 classes of students: the dependent variable is the scores that will change. Relevant variables would include: students being aware of experiment, different study methods of students, Tues class meets in a different room,
the variable you predict will change as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable
The purpose of the experiment is to test the hypothesis.
This is where the relationship of two or more variables that exists naturally in the world are examined A correlation exists when changes in one variable are accompanied by changes in the other variable Example: Smoking and Cancer -no manipulation; problems determining cause and effect
observes same subjects over a period of time;
Disadvantages: May be costly Time consuming Subjects die or move Experimenter dies Methods and instruments can become obsolete Advantage: Sensitive to intraindividual changes- How an individual changes over time.
compares different subjects of different development levels at same time
Advantages: Less costly Can complete in less time Don't lose Subjects Methods and instruments don't become obsolete Disadvantages: Looks at each individual only once Not sensitive to intra-individual changes
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Stresses unconscious drives - The most important causes of human behavior and personality are unconscious (deep seated)
Human beings are powered by two fundamental drives: eros (urge to procreate, sex) thanatos (urge to survive, death)
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Oral - 0-18 months Anal - 18 months-2(3) years Phallic - 2(3)-6 years Latency Period - 6-11 years Genital - 11+
Id Personality (Freud)
Reservoir of basic biological urges; present at birth, seeks immediate gratification Operates on the Pleasure Principle
"I want what I want when I want it"
Ego Personality (Freud)
Rational/cognitive side of the personality; begins to develop when the demands of the Id and reality clash Operates on the Reality Principle
Moving away from selfish impulsive and realizing I can't always get what I want; Freud says this is present at birth but not developed
Superego Personality (Freud)
Moral part of self (Conscience); develops in early childhood as the child adopts values, beliefs, behaviors of parents, significant others, church, etc. Operates on the Moral Principle
devil on the shoulder in cartoons; develops as children begin to have beliefs and values
Conflict between id, ego, superego results in anxiety. We use defense mechanisms to deal with this anxiety.
Defense mechanisms operate at the unconscious level. They only work if you are unaware of them.
3 Examples of Defense Mechanisms
Denial - You completely reject a thought or feeling.
Rationalization- You come up with various explanations to justify a situation
Displacement -You redirect your feelings to another target
Influenced by Freud Downplayed importance of sexuality in favor of the social environment
Stressed role of the ego Expanded development beyond childhood and adolescence into the adult stages
Trust vs. Mistrust
(Erikson) - 0-18 months develop sufficient trust in the world
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
(Erikson) 18 months-2(3) years develop sense of control over life
(developing a sense of control and mastery over actions)
Initiative vs. Guilt
(Erikson) 2(3)-6 years develop sense of self (responsibility for own actions);
progressive independence from parents developing a sense of self developing a greater sense of responsibility for one's own actions
Industry vs. Inferiority
(Erikson) 6-11 years develop sense of self worth
Identity vs. Role Confusion
(Erikson) 11-adolescence develop strong sense of identity (ego)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
(Erikson) early adulthood develop close relationships
Generativity vs. Self-absorption
(Erikson) middle adulthood contribute to world
Integrity vs. Despair
(Erikson) late adulthood coming to terms with life/death
Behavioristic Approach...Learning Theory Approach
Focus on behavior and the environmental forces that affect behavior
The Environment is all important
No mention of unconscious,id, ego, superego, etc.
Replaced with conditioning, reinforcement, punishment, stimulus/response
(Pavlov, Watson) Learning by association - responsible for many emotions (fears)
Definition: Taking a natural stimulus pairing it with a non-natural stimulus such that the non-natural stimulus now elicits the same response elicited by the natural stimulus.
Pavlov's Dogs and The Easy Button in the college dorm room shooting his roommate with a BB gun
(Skinner) The consequences of a response determine how likely it is to be repeated
Behaviors that are reinforced tend to be repeated
Behaviors that are not reinforced (or that are punished) are less likely to occur again
Example: Summer crying and learning that it will get her picked up
Social Learning..Modeling..Observational Learning
We can learn by observing the behavior of others. (Charis learning from watching consequences Sarah and I experienced)
The behaviors we tend to imitate are those behaviors that we see being reinforced in others.
As parents we need to be careful as to the role models we place before our children.
Examples: Role models in society affect kids (Movie stars, Sports figures, etc.)
any/all stimuli that increases the probability of a behavior occurring again.
They can be positive (add something to the situation) or they can be negative (remove something from the situation).
Aimed at suppressing behavior.
Warnings: These alone never teaches one what to do.
To be effective it has to be administered consistently. The closer it can be administered to the offense, the better it is. It can backfire (attention).
Piaget's Four Stages
Sensorimotor - 1st two years Based on your senses and motor skills
Preoperational - 2-7 years Learning to use symbols
Concrete Operational - 7-11(12) years Logic Based
Formal Operational - 11(12)-14(15) years Abstract and Hypothetical Ability
Rogers and Maslow Concerned with uniqueness of the individual
They stress that we have an internal drive that pushes us to realize own potential
Rogers talks about our striving to become fully functioning persons
Your actual genetic makeup All genes inherited from parents Fixed at conception
What we see Manifested characteristics Not fixed - interaction between genotype and the environment as one develops
Genes and Diseases
Genes are sometimes responsible for certain diseases & defects
In most cases these disorders linked with recessive rather than dominant genes
Occurs in 1 of every 680 births
Extra chromosome on chromosome 21 (3 instead of normal pair of 2)
Risk increases with parents age (especially mother) A mother in her late 20's - 1 in 1000 births A mother in her early 40's - 1 in 50 births
Period of the Zygote
begins at fertilization & ends when ovum implants itself in the wall of uterus - 2 week process
Period of the Embryo
3rd to 8th week - critical time of development (see chart)
Two important organs: Placenta - link between mother & fetus -organ keeps mother's blood & fetus' blood separate - allows nutrients to pass to fetus - allows waste materials to be removed
Umbilical Cord - attached to placenta at one end & to the child on the other end (20 inches in length)
By end of this stage the embryo is 1.5 - 2 inches in length & weights .66 ounce; all the organs are now present; after 8 weeks details added
Period of the Fetus
End of 2nd month until the birth of the baby (weeks 9-38)
Proximodistal - near to far- the structures nearest to the baby develop first
Cephalocaudal - head to tail- the structures nearest to the head develop first
external factors causing malformations or physical defects in fetus
Drugs - prescription (barbiturates, pain pills); non-prescription (aspirin) Chemicals - mercury, hydrocarbons used as herbicides/insecticides,
Nicotine Caffeine - high consumption may be harmful Alcohol - mother who is heavy or moderate drinker can cause serious defects in children (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome & Fetal Alcohol Effects) -facial malformations; retarded physical growth; impaired language development; attention deficits, learning impairment, MR; leading cause of retardation in the U.S. -FAS is leading cause of MR in the US.
Diseases/infections that can affect fetus
German Measles (Rubella) Diabetes Herpes AIDS - risk of transmission from mother to fetus is 35-60% (transmitted through the placenta or the virus being present in the lining of the birth canal).
Fetus born before 20th week weighing less than 500 grams (1 pound) = abortion
Fetus born between 20th & 28th week weighing 1-2 lbs = immature birth (some now survive)
Fetus born between 29th & 36th week weighing 2-5½ lbs = premature birth (many of these now survive)
Fetus born between 37th & 42nd week weighing 5½ + lbs = mature birth
Late delivery = post-mature birth
Stages of Labor
Stage 1: longest - may be 12-24 hours (1st birth) contractions of low intensity, cervix - opening to uterus - begins to dilate
Stage 2: delivery - starts with baby's head at opening of cervix, ends with birth of baby
Stage 3: Afterbirth - placenta & other membranes are expelled
30% of births Cesarean delivery Rates have increased 46% since 1996
done at 1, 5, & 10 minutes
Perfect: 10 Average: 7 Special Care: 4
Clock: Governs physical growth. Ticks throughout lifespan but seen most early in life because of the changes.
Clock: What society expects of us; school early in life, 20s working and school, 70s retired and enjoying family; These expectations change with history and society- Industrial Revolution, for example
Clock: What makes our stories unique, explains the passage of time and life for each person; drives us to become ourselves; personal sense of things (how old we feel vs. how old we are);
"Without Speech" Newborn: birth to 1 month Infant: 1 month to 1 year Toddler: 1 year to 2 years
CNS (brain) is functionally immature until 7 months - minimum activity in cortex area
Birth-24 months brain grows & triples in weight; neurons mature and develop
Good nutrition (protein) & sensory stimulation critical during this stage
Biological Development Continued...
At birth reflexes are present (do not require learning; disappear with development of brain)
- rooting reflex, head-turning reflex
- startle response
- fanning toes when tickled on bottom of foot
- grasping reflex
- blink, stepping, withdrawal
Smell, taste and hearing are almost fully developed at birth - hearing may be functional at 26 weeks gestation
Smell - prefer pleasant odors
Taste - sweet over bitter, sour, salty
Hearing - prefer mother's voice (as early as 3 days)
Infants are sensitive to touch (pain) at least within few hours of birth
The one sense that is not fully developed is vision
Newborns can see at birth, objects more than 10-12" away out of focus (20/500 vision-video; 20/200-20/400-text)
20/20 vision comes at approx. 6 - 12 months (1 Year Textbook/Video)
Preference for colors comes at 3-4 months
Depth perception coincides with crawling stage
Roll over 5 months (5.4)
Sit without support 7 months (6.8)
Pull self up to a stand 10 months (9.7) 12 months
Walk with help 12 months 11 months
Walk alone 14 months (14.9) 15 months
Bolded months from your text - p. 106
Some evidence infants remember smells & sights within days of birth (memory is of short duration, however)
Birth -2 years Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage World of here & now
Things have meaning when infant sees, smells, tastes or touches it
Object permanence not complete until 18 months
Possibly at 3.5 months some primitive notion of solidarity of objects
Birth - crying primary means of communication
1-4 months - cooing, squealing
6 months - babbling (resembles well formed syllables)
12 months - 1st word spoken (milk, mama, dada)
18 months - 2 word combinations - 3-50 word vocabulary
24 months - speaking in short sentences - 50-300 word vocabulary
Infant moving from total dependence to greater independence
Freud's oral stage (libido energy focused on mouth area)
Erikson's trust vs. mistrust stage
Infant influenced/affected by others in life; others also affected by infant and his/her temperament - bi-directional
usually refers to the emotional bond that parents feel toward the infant
Do the parents have to be with the infant right after birth in order for this to take place?
The emotional bond the child feels toward the parents or caregivers; gives child a safe place
Bowlby birth - 6-8 weeks (does not discriminate one person from another but has ability to elicit caregiving from an adult.
Attachment in the making
Bowlby 6-8 weeks- 6-8 months (selective social smiling; recognition of familiar faces, smiling less at unfamiliar faces - easily consoled by the primary caregiver.)
True (clear cut) attachment
Bowlby 6-8 months-18 months (not only can they extend an arm to mom; use motor skills to approach, cling to attachment objects, safe base from which to explore)
Takes place - peaks at 8 or 9 months
Those that do best: Many Siblings Frequent exposure to strangers Mother leaves naturally vs. lingering Moderate level of separation Transitional Objects may help
Reciprocal (Goal-corrected) attachment
Bowlby 18 months on (notions of self develop by 18 months, refers to self by name, by 24 months recognizes adult standards - the viewpoints of others - they can initiate interaction and negotiate (manipulate)
There is a recognition of cause and effect - I can do ________ and mom comes running.
"Stranger Situation" with 1 year olds: Observer brings mother and baby into experimental room and leaves. Mother sits in chair while baby explores. Stranger comes in and is silent for a minute, talks to mother for a minute and then approaches the baby. Mother leaves.
Stranger and baby are alone. First reunion. Mother returns and stranger leaves. Mother greets, and comforts baby. After engaging baby in play, mother says "bye bye" and leaves. Second separation. Baby is alone. Stranger enters and is alone with baby. Second reunion. Mother enters, greets, and picks up baby. Stranger leaves.
Mary Ainsworth Results
Securely Attached Infants (60-65%)
Insecurely (Anxiously) Attached Infants
Avoidant- would get upset when mom left, then ignore mom when she returned (20%) Ambivalent (Resistant)- Baby is very upset when she leaves, and very angry when she returns (10-15%) Disorganized (Disoriented) (5-10%)
mostly in the form of playing rather than caregiving.
Fathers spend avg of 32 minutes caregiving for children per day; Mothers spend avg of 70 min
"43% of US fathers have never changed a single infant diaper."
Day Care Stats
One out of two North American preschool children is now in daycare.
The fastest growing type of child care is infant care
High quality infant day care does not appear to disrupt parent-infant bond and has no consistent negative effects.
keys to good childhood:
High number of staff-to child ratio Consistency of staff (low turnover) Caregiver - child interaction Adequate equipment/supplies
Early Childhood Biological Development
Year between 2 & 3 activity level is higher than any other point in lifespan
By 5 brain at 90% of adult weight
Piagets 2nd stage - Preoperational (2-7)
Reason is dominated by perception & intuition vs. logic- cannot see others' view, only their own view
Inability to conserve- unable to determine sizes and perception, like pouring same amount of water into a glass that makes it look less or more
This stage is divided into two substages: Preconceptual Intuitive
(A part of Preconceptual Stage)
making inferences from one particular to another (from one instance to another)
Part 1 of Preoperational Stage- Piaget child begins to symbolize; to mentally represent objects & events- like Santa with Christmas
Similar objects assumed to be identical
Part 2 of Preoperational Stage- Piaget Egocentricity - difficulty adopting another point of view
Errors of class inclusion- all flowers aren't daisies, but they don't know that
1st word - 1 yr old
2 word sentences - 18 months
Multiple word sentences - 2 - 21/2 yrs old
Complex sentences & adult-like grammatical structure - present at 4 yrs old
By 5 yrs old - 14,000 words
Physical activity - (important in developing physical skills
Imagining self, others or objects as something other than what they are - (important in developing cognitive skills)
Play with two or more children (important in developing social skills)
Onlooker play - child watches others play but does not participate
Parallel play - plays side by side but no interaction or sharing
Associative play - share toys but each child is playing independently, no mutually accepted goals or rules
Cooperative play - share & help each other in activities that require shared goals
By 3 yrs old - children identify self as boy or girl
By 5 yrs old - boys play more with boys, girls with girls
Boys - physical/aggressive, pretend to be super heroes, monsters
Girls - affectionate, compliant, pretend to be cooks, mothers, babies
No single correct definition of what a family is
Fewer than 30% of all families fit "typical" family profile
Increasing number of children live in single parent family - divorce largest culprit
Approx. 50% children spend average 6 yrs. in a single parent setting
Affects of Divorce
Divorce can be harmful for children at any age.
However, Amato & Keith (1991) found divorce is more harmful when it occurs during childhood and adolescence than during the preschool or college years.
The effects of divorce on children can persists even into adulthood.
Factors Why Divorce Negatively Affects Children
1. Absence of a parent (usually father) 2. Economic influence 3. Family conflict - stress
Autonomy more important than obedience - non-demanding - non-punitive - highly permissive
Passive Style of Parenting- go with the flow; whatever happens, happens
Dogmatic, very controlling, limited autonomy, little recourse to reason, "I'll tell you what to do..."