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diabetes mellitus

A systemic metabolic disorder that involves improper metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins

beta cells

Insulin is secreted by the _______________ of the pancrease?

70 - 120mg

The normal blood sugar level is?

genetics, viruses, aging, diet, lifestyle, ethnicity

What are the contributing factors related to diabetes?

coxsackievirus B, rubella, mumps

What viruses contribute to the development of diabetes?

Type 1

formerly known as insulin dependent diabetes

Type 2

formerly known as non-insulin dependent diabetes

polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia

The 3 p's

sudden onset, weight loss, hyperglycemia, under 30 years of age

What are te clinical manifestations of Type 1 diabetes?

slow onset, over 35 years of age, obesity

What are the clinical manifestations of Type 2 diabetes?

Type 2

What form of diabetes may go undetected for years?

fasting blood glucose

Diagnostic test done after an 8 hour fast, blood is drawn?

60 - 110 mg

What is a normal range for fasting blood glucose?


Results for a serum insulin test for Type 1 DM

normal to high

Results for a serum insulin test for Type 2 DM

postprandial blood glucose

Diagnostic test done by giving a patient a measured amount of carbs. and draw a blood sample 2 hours later.

patient self-monitoring blood glucose

a blood sample is obtained by the fingerstick method, by patient or neurse, and testes with a glucose-monitoring device

glycosylated hemoglobin

A diagnostic test that measures the amount of glucose that has been incorporated into the hemoglobin within an erythrocyte.

type 2

DM that may be controlled by diet alone

type 1

DM where the diet is calculated and then the amount of insuling required to metabolize it is established


What type of diet is based on total carbohydrates?


What type of diet is based on the reduction of simple carbs, saturated fats and alcohol; lowering the glycemic index?

reduces insulin resistance and increases glucose uptake for 72 hours

What is the benefit of exercise?

action and type

Insulin meds. are classified by _______ and _________?

rapid, short, intermediate, long

Insulin formulas are classified as ___________, __________, __________, and __________.


What form of insulin can be given for type 2 DM?


What form of insulin will always be given for type 1 DM?

nervousness, tremors, irritability, dizziness, changes in conciousness

What are signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia?

coma, infection

Acute complications of DM?

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