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29 terms

Diabetes Mellitus

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diabetes mellitus
A systemic metabolic disorder that involves improper metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
beta cells
Insulin is secreted by the _______________ of the pancrease?
70 - 120mg
The normal blood sugar level is?
genetics, viruses, aging, diet, lifestyle, ethnicity
What are the contributing factors related to diabetes?
coxsackievirus B, rubella, mumps
What viruses contribute to the development of diabetes?
Type 1
formerly known as insulin dependent diabetes
Type 2
formerly known as non-insulin dependent diabetes
polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
The 3 p's
sudden onset, weight loss, hyperglycemia, under 30 years of age
What are te clinical manifestations of Type 1 diabetes?
slow onset, over 35 years of age, obesity
What are the clinical manifestations of Type 2 diabetes?
Type 2
What form of diabetes may go undetected for years?
fasting blood glucose
Diagnostic test done after an 8 hour fast, blood is drawn?
60 - 110 mg
What is a normal range for fasting blood glucose?
absent
Results for a serum insulin test for Type 1 DM
normal to high
Results for a serum insulin test for Type 2 DM
postprandial blood glucose
Diagnostic test done by giving a patient a measured amount of carbs. and draw a blood sample 2 hours later.
patient self-monitoring blood glucose
a blood sample is obtained by the fingerstick method, by patient or neurse, and testes with a glucose-monitoring device
glycosylated hemoglobin
A diagnostic test that measures the amount of glucose that has been incorporated into the hemoglobin within an erythrocyte.
type 2
DM that may be controlled by diet alone
type 1
DM where the diet is calculated and then the amount of insuling required to metabolize it is established
quantitative
What type of diet is based on total carbohydrates?
qualitative
What type of diet is based on the reduction of simple carbs, saturated fats and alcohol; lowering the glycemic index?
reduces insulin resistance and increases glucose uptake for 72 hours
What is the benefit of exercise?
action and type
Insulin meds. are classified by _______ and _________?
rapid, short, intermediate, long
Insulin formulas are classified as ___________, __________, __________, and __________.
oral
What form of insulin can be given for type 2 DM?
injections
What form of insulin will always be given for type 1 DM?
nervousness, tremors, irritability, dizziness, changes in conciousness
What are signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia?
coma, infection
Acute complications of DM?