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Terms in this set (70)
Red blood cells (RBC) (erythrocytes)
Adult female - 4 to 5.5 million cells
Adult male - 4.5 to 6 million
what do RBC do?
Adult female - 12-15 g/dL
Adult male - 14-17 g/dL
what does hemoglobin do?
transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in RBC
Adult female - 35% to 47%
Adult male - 42% to 52%
what does hematocrit do?
percentage of RBC
(should be 3x Hbg)
White blood cell (WBC) (leukocytes)
4,500 to 11,000 cells/mm3
what does WBC do?
Protects the body against infections
45-75% of WBCs
what do neutrophils do?
first to respond to infection
what are bands?
Immature neutrophils, released only with severe infection (sending babies out because the fight is so bad)
20-40% of WBCs
what do lymphocytes do?
Respond to viral infection, include B-cells, T-cells, and Natural Killer cells
4-6% of WBCs
what do monocytes do?
move into tissues and turn into macrophages, remove dead or damaged tissue
< 7% of WBCs
what do eosinophils do?
Respond to parasitic infection, allergic reactions, and asthma attacks
< 3% of WBCs
what do basophils do?
Clinical significance is not well known, may have a role in allergic reactions and to promote healing
shift to the left
means that an increased number of immature neutrophils is present in the blood = severe infection
150,000 - 400,000 cells mm3
what do platelets do?
part of blood responsible for clotting, sticky
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
what does ESR do?
identifies inflammation which assists in diagnosing: cancer, infection, autoimmune diseases
135 - 145 mmol/L
what does sodium do?
Major cation of extracellular fluid.
what does chloride do?
identifies acid base-imbalance. found in blood
what does potassium do?
identify electrolyte imbalances, cardiac arrhythmias, monitor patients who are acidotic, receiving diuretic therapy. cation.
Think cardiac and muscles.
8.6 - 10 mg/dL
what does calcium do?
Aids in blood clotting by converting prothrombin to thrombin.
70 - 100 mg/dL
what does glucose do?
Fasting _________ levels are used to help diagnose diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia
0.6 - 1.3 mg/dL
what does creatinine do?
Specific indicator for kidney function and muscular disorders
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
8 - 25 mg/dL
what does BUN do?
identifying liver problems, renal problems, hydration status, tumor lysis. Monitor effectiveness of hemodialysis.
high = dehydration
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
CMP vs BMP
CMP has liver profiles (ALT, AST, Bilirubin) + BMP
Alanine Aminoransferase (ALT)
what does ALT do?
Used to identify hepatocellular injury and inflammation of the liver and to monitor improvement or worsening of disease
Aspartate amniotransferase (AST)
what does AST do?
Used to evaluate a client with suspected hepatocellular disease, injury, or inflammation (may also be used along with cardiac markers to evaluate coronary artery occlusive disease)
what does total bilirubin do?
Produced by the liver, spleen, and bone marrow and is also a by-product of hemoglobin breakdown
increase with jaundice
Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)
what does aPTT do?
Evaluates how well the coagulation sequence (intrinsic clotting system) is functioning by measuring the amount of time it takes in seconds to form recalcified citrated plasma to clot after partial thromboplastin is added to it
Prothrombin time (aPT)
extrinsic coagulation system
Males: 9.6 -11.8 seconds
Females: 9.5 to 11.3 seconds
what does aPT do?
______________ is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein produced by the liver that is necessary for fibrin clot formation
International Ratio (INR)
2 - 3 for standard warfarin therapy
3 - 4 for high-dose warfarin therapy (valve replacement)
< 250 ng/mL
what does the D-Dimer do?
a blood test that measures clot formation and lysis that results from the degradation of fibrin
(likeliness of a DVT)
Creatine Kinase (CK)
what does creatine kinase do?
enzyme found in skeletal muscle and brain tissue that reflects tissue catabolism resulting from cell trauma
Increased amounts of _________ are released into the bloodstream when an infarction causes damage to the myocardium
neuroendocrine peptides that are used to identify clients with heart failure
brain nautruretic peptide (BNP)
synthesized primary in cardiac ventricle muscle. Primary marker for identifying heart failure
A by-product of protein catabolism; most of it is created by bacteria acting on proteins present in the gut
Elevated levels resulting from hepatic dysfunction may lead to encephalopathy
Enzyme produced by the pancreas and salivary glands, aids in the digestion of complex carbohydrates and is excreted by the kidneys
Pancreatic enzyme converts fats and triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol
elevated levels can occur in pancreatic disorders
< 200 mg/dL
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
> 60 mg/dL
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
< 130 mg/dL
< 150 mg/dL
Good control of diabetes: <7%
Fair control of diabetes: 7% to 8%
Poor control of diabetes: >8%
(test done every 3 months)
Appearance - clear to slightly hazy
Color - straw to dark yellow
pH - 4.5 - 8
Specific gravity - 1.005-1.035
Glucose - none
Protein - none
RBC's - none or rare
WBC's - None or rare
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