Herpetology Science Olympiad 2017

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Crocodiles/Alligators/Caimans
Order
Long tail, bumpy backs, sharp teeth, short legs, cold-blooded, amphibious, have webbed feet.
Crocodiles
Family
Large aquatic reptiles, carnivorous, lives in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Australia, 500-2,200 lbs.
Alligators/Caimans
Family
Large aquatic reptiles, North America and Asia, only 2 species/broader, round snout, up to 500 pounds
Turtles
Order
Water-dwelling reptiles, characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell, up to 1,500 lbs., includes sea turtles, freshwater turtles, and tortoises
Snapping turtles
Family
Typically large, aggressive, mainly carnivorous in adult life, omnivorous
Musk + Mud turtles
Family
Typically small, carnivorous, defend by spraying a foul-smelling liquid at predators/enemies, can be found in wetlands in the Americas
Pond + Marsh turtles
Family
Small, mainly carnivorous turtles; lives in the western U.S; extinct in Canada where it used to live
Box turtles
Genus
Mainly herbivorous, although omnivorous; terrestrial cousins of the pond turtles, although not tortoises
Diamondback Terrapins
Genus
Saltwater-dwelling, eastern and southern U.S, can weigh up to 2.5 lbs.
Map turtles
Genus
Typically small, freshwater, carnivorous, southern and western U.S.
Painted turtles/Cooters/sliders/Redbellys
Genus
Freshwater, typically small, popular pets, omnivorous, defends by kicks, slaps, and urinates; is one of the few turtles that can flip over and turn itself upright
Cooters
Genus
Freshwater, highly omnivorous, typically small, central and eastern U.S.
Spotted/wood/bog turtles
Genus
Semiaquatic, typically small, omnivorous, critically endangered species, eastern and southern U.S.
Chicken turtles
Genus
Semiaquatic, typically small, omnivorous, can be found in southeastern U.S.
Blanding's turtles
Genus
Semiaquatic, typically small, omnivorous, southeastern U.S.; most species are near threatened or endangered
Tortoises
Family
Herbivorous; Varying in size (3 or 4 cm-1.5 or 2 m); long lifespan (some can live to over 150 years); occur all over the globe
Sea turtles
Family
Typically large, omnivorous, most have a hard shell; most species are endangered; weighs up to 1,500 lbs., can be found in all oceans other than in the polar regions
Soft Shelled turtles
Family
Typically small, weigh up to 27 lbs., freshwater; can be found all over the Americas; mainly carnivorous
Lizards + Snakes
Order
Widespread group of land-dwelling reptiles; cold-blooded, some are legless; including 7,000 species; name means "scaly"
Lizards
Suborder
Widespread group of squamate, land-dwelling reptiles; have feet and external ears, which cousin snakes don't have; over 6,000 species found and identified
Geckos
Family
Typically small, most are carnivorous, live all around the globe, are mostly found in rocky deserts/mountains
Anoles
Family
Typically small, omnivorous, life span of 6 years; arboreal (live in trees); can change colors, like chameleons, but color change is not as sophisticated as that of a chameleon
Green Anoles
Genus
Typically small, omnivorous, arboreal (live in trees); can change colors, like chameleons, but color change is not as sophisticated as that of a chameleon
Iguanas
Family
Typically medium-sized to large, omnivorous, native to the Americas (not Canada); keen sight; some species can change color and blend in with surroundings (ex: green iguana)
Green Iguanas
Genus
Typically large, omnivorous, native to Mexico; keen sight, ability to blend in with surroundings; skin color changes based on mood
Desert Iguanas
Genus
Medium-size, mainly herbivorous, native to Sonoran/Mojave desert; tail longer than body; live in creosote bush
Chuckwallas
Genus
Medium-size, primarily herbivorous, native to southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico; will be seen moving around at temperatures of 102 degrees Farenheit
Collared lizards
Family
Typically small, carnivorous, can be found all over the western U.S; two black collars around the neck give the lizard its name
Earless/spiny/tree/side-blotched/horned lizards
Family
Lizards native to southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico; typically small; most species are carnivorous
Spiny lizards
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous, can be found in the southern U.S. and northern Mexico; are diurnal and arboreal
Earless lizards
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous, can be found in the southern United States; live in communities; average active temperature is 102 degrees
Fringe-toed lizards
Genus
Typically small, omnivorous, native to southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico; color of skin blends helps them blend in with sand; overbite to prevent sand from entering
Tree + side-blotched lizards
Genus
Typically small; carnivorous; can be found in southern U.S. and northern Mexico; live for only 3 years and reach sexual maturity after one year; home ranges can be as large as 155 square meters
Horned lizards
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous, lives in southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico; coloration serves as camouflage; some species can spit blood to distract predators; can puff up to make themselves harder to swallow
Wall lizards
Family
Typically small, carnivorous; native to western Europe, but is being introduced to Cincinnati, Ohio; vary in size, survival rate, and immune resistance (response to infection)
Whiptails
Family
Typically small; carnivorous; can be found all over the Americas; some species are all-female, and they reproduce by parthenogenesis
Whiptails + Racerunners
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous, can be found in southwestern U.S. and some parts of Mexico; common name (racerunner) comes from there speed over short distance (can run 17 mph, burst speed)
Skinks
Family
Typically small, mainly carnivorous; can be found all over the Americas; can be found in all ecosystems other than the boreal and polar regions of the world
Skinks
Genus
Typically small, mainly insectivorous; can be found in the western United States; can be found in a variety of habitats, from sea level to 2,130 meters above sea level
Glass + alligator lizards
Family
Resemble snakes; typically large, carnivorous; native to North America, northern Africa, and southeastern and eastern Asia
Glass lizards
Genus
; typically large, carnivorous; native to India, China, Indonesia, north Africa, North Carolina, and southwestern Florida; known because when they are predated upon, their tails fall off and break into shards, like glass, which is used as a decoy
Alligator lizards
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous; found in western U.S. and northwestern Mexico; slender snake-like bodies; can be found active at temperatures of less than 15 degrees Celsius (52 degrees Fahrenheit)
Gila monster
Family
Typically large, carnivorous; one of two venomous lizard species; native to southwestern U.S. and the Mexican state of Sonora; tends to be heavy and quite slow-moving
Snakes
Suborder
Elongated, slender, legless bodies; some are venomous; all are carnivorous; no eyelids or external ears; smell using tougue
Brahminy Blind snake
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous; only female species; they originally come from southwest Asia, but they have been seen in subtropical areas such as Hawaii, Mexico, and Florida; completely blind
Blind snake
Family
Typically small, carnivorous; completely blind; can be found in Africa, western Asia and India, and the Americas; occur in a variety of habitats, from arid regions and rainforests
Rubber + Rosy boas
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous; can be seen California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia; have been known to inhabit a wide variety of habitat types from grassland, meadows and chaparral to deciduous and conifer forests, to high alpine settings
Typically harmless snakes
Family
Typically harmless; most aren't venomous; the few venomous species have grooved fangs in the rear of their upper jaw
Water + salt marsh snakes
Genus
Typically large, carnivorous; active day and night; found near ponds, lakes, streams and marshes in eastern and central North America
Brown + Redbelly snakes
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous; called fire snake because of brick-red underside; are found in damp areas in eastern U.S.
Ribbon/Garter/Lined snakes
Genus
Typically large, carnivorous; some produce mildly neurotoxic venom; can be found in wetlands in western and southern United States
Hognose snakes
Genus
Medium-sized; carnivorous; can be found in grasslands and prairies in Canada and the U.S; is non-venomous, but produces an irritating saliva
Ring-necked snakes
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous; can be found in a variety of habitats, as long as there is abundant cover and denning; they can be seen throughout most of the U.S. and their range extends to southeastern Canada and Mexico
Racers
Genus
Size varies from small to large (20 to 60 inches); carnivorous; diurnal; can be found near water east of the Rocky Mountains
Coachwhips + whipsnakes
Genus
Typically large, carnivorous; can be found in sandy areas across the U.S. and in the northern part of Mexico
Green snakes
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous; prefers open grounds; can be found in southern Canada and northern U.S.
Rat snakes
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous; can be found in terrestrial or semi-arboreal areas; are found throughout the northern hemisphere, but can have been seen in South America, southern Africa, and Australia
Pine/bull/gopher snakes
Genus
Typically large, carnivorous; are found throughout the U.S. and Mexico; prefer dry areas, such as meadows; are usually active during day, but have been seen active at night
King + milk snakes
Genus
Size varies (20 to 60 inches); carnivorous; are found in forested regions; can be seen across the Americas; are mainly nocturnal
Crowned + blackhead snakes
Genus
Typically small, carnivorous; are found in tiny holes that they burrow in; can be seen across the Americas; are nocturnal
Coral snakes
Family
Sea snakes
Family
Pit vipers
Family
Cotton mouth + copperhead snakes
Genus
Pigmy + Massasauga snakes
Genus
Rattlesnakes
Genus
Salamanders
Order
Hellbenders
Family
Giant salamanders
Family
Mud puppies + water dogs
Family
Torrent + seep salamanders
Family
Amphiumas
Family
Sirens
Family
Mole salamanders
Family
Newts
Family
Lungless salamanders
Family
Dusky salamanders
Genus
Woodland salamanders
Genus
Ensatina
Genus
Green + Climbing salamanders
Genus
Slender salamanders
Genus
Web-toed salamanders
Genus
Four-toed salamanders
Genus
Spring salamanders
Genus
Red + Mud salamanders
Genus
Brook salamanders
Genus
Texas + Blanco blind salamanders
Genus
Frogs
Order
Spadefoots
Family
Toads
Family
Tree frogs
Family
Tree frogs
Genus
Chorus frogs
Genus
Cricket frogs
Genus
Narrow-mouth frogs
Family
True frogs
Family
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